WHAT IS THE TRUE MEANING OF EQUALITY?
Guaranteeing certain rights to each individual is meaningless unless all inequality is eliminated from the social structure and each individual is assured of equal status and opportunities to develop his best qualities. If rights cannot be enjoyed equally by all members of a community, they are meaningless. One of the main goals of the constitution writers was to ensure that everyone had equal status and opportunity, and to lay the groundwork for eventually establishing an egalitarian society. They went on to accomplish these goals by including a set of fundamental principles in the Constitution.
According to D.D. Basu, it is the same equality of status and opportunity that the preamble of the Indian constitution promises to citizens. Equality of status and opportunity is ensured for the people of India by the state abolishing all distinctions and discriminations between citizens on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, and throwing open 'public places,' by abolishing untouchability and titles, and by ensuring equal opportunity in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the state.
The preamble of our constitution declares that our citizens are entitled to equality of status and opportunity. The principle of equality of law does not imply that the same law should apply to everyone, but rather that a law should treat all members of a group in the same way; that they should be treated equally under the same circumstances. "That should not be treated differently, and unlikes should not be treated alike," it says. "Likes and dislikes should be treated equally." One of the magnificent cornerstones of Indian democracy is equality. The basic structure of the constitution is based on equality.
WHAT IS THE MEANING OF FRATERNITY IN POLITICAL SCIENCE?
Fraternity refers to a spirit of brotherhood, a sense that everyone is a child of the same soil, a child of the same motherland. "As the committee felt the need for fraternal concord and the goodwill in India was never greater than by then in this particular aim of the new Constitution should be emphasised by special mention in the preamble," a drafting committee of the constituent assembly added the term to the preamble.
The drafting committee recognised India's diversity in terms of race, religion, languages, and cultures. The fraternity is the glue that holds the inherent differences together. Fraternity refers to brotherhood, which must be promoted in a country made up of people of various races and religions.
Brotherhood is a special kind of relationship that unites all people, regardless of gender or generation. Only if there is a spirit of brotherhood and oneness among the people of the land will a democratic system function properly. Fraternity is impossible to achieve unless each individual's dignity is preserved and mutually respected. The desire to form a company opens the door to fraternity. Fraternity is promoted by peaceful coexistence, living and letting live others, mutual understanding, feelings for inter-se cooperation, attitude of adjustment, sacrifice, to be useful to others, enjoyment of common wealth, solidarity for the defence of all, and other good human qualities.
In this regard, the phrase 'to promote among them all' preceding the word 'fraternity' is significant. 'Among them, all' promotes—especially the word 'all'—not only among the poor, but also among India's entire population. 'Do hereby adopt, enact, etc.' is taken from the last line of the Irish constitution's preamble. Fraternity, according to the Supreme Court, is "a sense of common brotherhood among all Indians." In a country like ours, where there are so many disruptive forces such as regionalism, communalism, and linguism, it is necessary to emphasise and re-emphasize that only a spirit of brotherhood can preserve India's unity and integrity. India has a single citizenship, and every citizen should feel first and foremost that he is an Indian.
THE DIGNITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL
Individual dignity must be preserved in order to promote fraternity. As a result, the preamble of India's constitution guarantees the dignity of every individual. This dignity is ensured by guaranteeing each individual equal fundamental rights while also establishing a set of directives for the state to follow in order to secure, among other things, the right to an adequate means of livelihood, just and humane working conditions, and a decent standard of living for all citizens, men and women alike.
The Indian constitution aims to achieve 'individual dignity' by guaranteeing equal fundamental rights to each individual, so that if his rights are violated, he can seek redress in a court of law. The dignity of an individual in a nation is the nation's dignity. The preamble of India's constitution recognises and ensures the enforcement of fundamental rights essential for existence, full development of personality, and dignified lives for Indians, such as equality and freedom. It should be noted that our Supreme Court read the preamble in conjunction with article 21 before concluding that the right to dignity is a fundamental right.