Treaties Related To Essential Arms Control

  • Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), 1963
> Nuclear testing in the atmosphere, outer space and under water are banned. It does not forbid underground research, but forbids environmental explosions if the explosions produce debris beyond the jurisdiction of the responsible state.

  • Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT), 1970
> It is the only multilateral treaty with a binding pledge from nuclear arms states to disarmament. It aims to encourage peaceful nuclear technology cooperation and to avoid the proliferation of nuclear arms and weapons technology.
> The NPT has been ratified by more nations than any other weapons limitation and disarmament treaty. Compliance with the Treaty is confirmed by the IAEA.
  • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I), 1972
> Agreements were signed by the United States and the Soviet Union on limitations and restrictions on their strategic arms.
> Efforts to reach an agreement on ABM systems have failed and further proposals have been made. SALT I ended after more than two years of negotiation, but an Interim Agreement for a period of five years was formed for certain main aspects of strategic arms.
> Never did SALT II come into being.
  • Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, 1972
> Only two ABM deployment areas are restricted and situated in such a way that they can not become the basis for establishing a national ABM security.
> The United States and the Soviet Union / Russian Federation will hold meetings in Geneva every five years to review and change the terms of the Treaty.
> In 2001, A formal notice of intent to repeal the treaty was presented by President George Bush and the United States withdrew from the ABM Treaty in 2002.
  • Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), 1975
> It is the first multilateral disarmament treaty to prohibit the development , production and stockpiling of weapons of mass destruction in this group.
  • Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), 1987
> This is an informal group of governments with shared interests in missiles, unmanned aircraft, and associated non-proliferation technologies.
> Its aim is to minimise the risk of proliferation by monitoring transfers to weapons of mass destruction-capable delivery systems. States must obey laws and procedures that require the exchange of knowledge. No formal process exists to ensure compliance.
  • Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I (START I), 1994
> It was the first treaty requiring U.S. and Soviet / Russian strategic nuclear arms reductions. In developing a structure that ensured predictability and consistency for deep reductions, this was invaluable.
> The breakup of the Soviet Union caused the treaty to be postponed because, among other things, the classification of states as nuclear or non-nuclear had to be decided.
> START II stopped with START I.
  • Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), 1997
> This is the first multilateral agreement for the removal of chemical weapons as a form of weapons of mass destruction.
> In 1997, the Preparatory Committee for the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) was set up as an entry-into-force of the CWC with a view to defining the basic operating procedures and enforcing the CWC regime.
> The provisions of the CWC establish a clear regime capable of checking the destruction of chemical weapons, preventing the re-emergence of chemical weapons by any group, and ensuring safeguards against chemical weapons. Collaboration on the peaceful uses of chemistry is also promoted.
  • Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) (Yet to come into force)
> It consists of three parts: the International Monitoring System (IMS) is detailed in Part I, the On-Site Inspections (OSI) portion is based in Part II, and Confidence-Building Measures (CBMs) are part III.
> The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is an international organisation of two bodies: the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS), which coordinates the establishment and maintenance of an international network of monitoring stations and radionuclide laboratories of countries, and the Preparatory Committee, which is intended to assist in achieving the goal and intent of the Treaty.

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