Shah Jahan

Shah Jahan

Mughal Emperor Jahangir and his wife JagatGosain gave birth to Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram, later known as Shah Jahan, on January 5, 1592. From 1628 to 1658, he was the Mughal Emperor.
 
Shah Jahan
EARLY LIFE
• Shah Jahan was born in Lahore, Pakistan to Prince Salim (who later became Emperor Jahangir) and his Rajput wife from Marwar Princess Jagat Gosaini. Her official Mughal name was Bilqis Makani. Shah Jahan’s grandfather was Mughal Emperor Akbar.
• Shah Jahan was born as Prince Shihab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram, whose name means "joyous" in Persian, and was given the name Khurram by his grandfather Akbar.
• His father bestowed the title Shah Jahan Bahadur on him after being impressed by his child at a young age.
• He was Jahangir's third son and was regarded as the most capable and capable ruler. After Jahangir's death, he ascended to the throne and defeated his rivals. On February 14, 1628, he was crowned in Agra.
• He received training in martial arts as well as a variety of fine arts. 
 
LIFE AS EMPEROR OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
• Shah Jahan was a capable commander in the army. The Mughal Empire made Mewar a vassal state.
• When Shah Jahan became Emperor, he executed many of his former opponents, including his own brother Shahryar, imprisoned many more, and consolidated his power. The Mughal succession rules do not follow primogeniture, in which the eldest son succeeds the father; upon the death of a ruler, there is always a fight for power among brothers in the Mughal courts.
• Prior to becoming king, he served as governor of the Deccan, Bihar, Bengal, Gujarat, and Delhi as a prince.
• During his reign as king, Shah Jahan expanded the military and encouraged the manufacture of weapons. Several territories were annexed by him.
• To reclaim Kandahar and other ancestral lands, Shah Jahan waged a continuous war in the northwest frontier.
• His policy in the Deccan was more successful.
• He defeated Ahmadnagar's forces and took control of the city.
• The emperor signed treaties with Bijapur and Golconda.
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• In the Deccan, Shah Jahan carved out four Mughal provinces: Khandesh, Berar, Telangana, and Daulatabad.
• Shah Jahan married several times, as was customary at the time. Arjumand Banu Begum, also known as Mumtaz Mahal, was said to be his favourite. Shah Jahan was said to be depressed when she died during childbirth in 1631. He got the Taj Mahal built in her honour, and he is perhaps best known for it.
• He also designed the Pearl Mosque in Agra, the Red Fort in Delhi, the Jama Masjid in Delhi, the Shalimar Gardens, and a number of other structures in modern-day Pakistan. He was also responsible for the construction of the famous Peacock Throne.
• During his reign, the Marwari horse was introduced, and various Mughal cannons were mass-produced in the Jaigarh Fort, which became Shah Jahan's favourite.
• During his reign, the Mughal Empire expanded moderately as his sons commanded large armies on various fronts. At the time, India was a thriving centre for the arts, crafts, and architecture, and Shah Jahan's empire was home to some of the world's best architects, artisans, craftsmen, painters, and writers.
• Old Delhi, also known as PuraniDilli, is a part of the larger city of Delhi, India. It was founded in 1639 as a walled city known as Shahjahanabad, when Shah Jahan decided to relocate the Mughal capital from Agra.
• The city's construction was completed in 1648, and it served as the Mughal Empire's capital until its fall in 1857.
• During Shah Jahan's reign, Mughal paintings were mostly limited to court paintings.
 
Shah Jahan
WAR WITH THE PORTUGUESE
• In 1631, Shah Jahan gave Qasim Khan, the Mughal viceroy of Bengal, orders to drive the Portuguese out of their trading post at Port Hoogly.
• High Mughal officials accused the Portuguese of trafficking, and the Mughal-controlled port of Saptagram began to suffer from commercial competition.
• The activities of the Jesuits in that region infuriated Shah Jahan, particularly when they were accused of abducting peasants.
• The Mughal Army raised imperial banners and took control of the Bandel region on September 25, 1632, and the garrison was punished.
 
WAR OF SUCCESSION
The last years of Shah Jahan’s reign were clouded by a bitter war of succession among his four sons:
1.    Dara Shikoh (crown prince)
2.    Shah Shuja (governor of Bengal)
3.    Aurangazeb (governor of Deccan)
4.    Murad Baksh (governor of Malwa and Gujarat)
•    Aurangazeb emerged victorious in this struggle.
•    He entered the Agra Fort after defeating Dara.
•    He forced Shah Jahan to surrender.
•    Shah Jahan was confined to the female apartments in the Agra fort and strictly put under watch.
•    Shah Jahan lived for eight long years lovingly nursed by his daughter Jahanara.

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