Since 2004, the Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The pre-Mughal city, which is located in Gujarat's Panchamahal district, is a treasure trove of Hindu and Muslim architecture, culture, and history. It is the only place where Islamic designs from before the Mughal era have been preserved.
The following monuments are included in the list of all monuments:
Mosques, temples, granaries, tombs, wells, walls, and terraces are among the eleven different types of structures found at Champaner-Pavagadh.
The monuments are located near and at the foot of the Pavagadh hill. Due to a lack of funding, the Archaeological Survey of India maintains only 39 monuments in the area, according to the Heritage Trust of Baroda. The Forest Service owns 94% of the land in this area.
I. Helical stepped well
II. Sakar Khan's Dargah
III. City Gate near Kasbin Talao
IV. Citadel walls
V. City walls at south-east corner of the citadel going up the hill
VI. East and South Bhadra Gates
VII. Sahar ki Masjid (Bohrani)
VIII. Three cells inside the citadel wall between Sahar ki Masjid the local fund Dharmashala
IX. Mandvi or Custom House
X. Jami Masjid
XI. Stepwell north of Jama Masjid
XII. Kevda Masjid and Cenotaph
XIII. Tomb with a big dome in the centre and small corner domes on way to Khajuri Masjid near Wada Talao
XIV. Cenotaph of Kevda Masjid
XV. Nagina Masjid
XVI. Cenotaph of Nagina Masjid
XVII. Lila Gumbaz ki Masjid, Chapaner
XVIII. Kabutarkhana Pavilion on the north bank of Wada Talao near Khajuri Masjid
XIX. Kamani Masjid
XX. Bawaman Mosque
B. PAVAGAD HILL-
I. Gate No. 1 on Pavagarh hill (Atak Gate)
II. Gate No. 2 (with three gateways, Budhiya gate)
III. Gate No. 3 (Moti gate, Sadanshah-Gate)
IV. Gate No. 4 with big bastion with cells in the interior
V. Sat Manzil between gate Nos. 4 and 5 right up to bastions on top
VI. Mint above Gate No4
VII. Gate No. 5 near Machi (Gulan Bulan Gate)
VIII. Gate No. 6 (Buland Darwaza)
IX. Makai Kothar
X. Palace of Patai Rawal with tanks
XI. Gate No. 7 near iron bridge (Makai Gate)
XII. Gate No. 8 (Tarapore Gate)
XIII. The fort of Pavagad and ruined Hindu and Jain temples on the top of Pavagad hills
XIV. Navlakha Kothar
XV. Walls of fort on top
Many events have occurred in the Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park. It has witnessed centuries of rulers fighting for control and then abandoning it. Vanaraj Chavda of Ahilwada gave the city its name (746 to 806 AD). It was abandoned until 400 AD. Allaudin Khilji, Chauhan Rajputs, Solanki Kings, and Khichi Chauhans ruled the city. When Mehmud Begda rebuilt it as the capital of an empire, it was a time of progress and peace. When Mughal Emperor Humayun looted the region in the early 16th century, it was completely destroyed.
When British explorers discovered the site in 1803, it was resurrected. The Baroda Heritage Trust attempted to restore the grandeur but was unable to do so due to a lack of funds. The city and its monuments were designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, preventing the region's total destruction.
The Champaner Pavagadh Archeological Park contains monuments and structures dating from the eighth to the fourteenth centuries. The region's mystique stems from the centuries of history encased within its walls. Fortified walls, mosques, tombs, Hindu and Jain temples, granaries, stepped wells, and terraces are among the monuments in the Archeological Park. In this archaeological park, the Baroda Heritage Trust has identified 114 monuments. However, due to a lack of funds, only 39 of them are maintained and cared for by the Archeological Survey of India. Approximately 94 percent of the Champaner region's land is managed by the forest service. The Association of Indian Temples funds the upkeep of the temples for devotees.
A Helical stepped well, Sakar Khan's Dargah, City Gate near Kasbin Talao, Citadel walls, Citadel walls at the south-east corner of the citadel going up the hill, East and South Bhadra Gates, Sahar ki Masjid (Bohrani), Mandvi or Custom House, Jami Masjid, Kevda Masjid and Cenotaph, Khajuri Masjid, Nagina Masji
The ruins of Atak Gate, Budhiya Gate, Sadanshah-Gate, Sat Manzil, Gulan Bulan Gate, Buland Darwaza, Makai Kothar, Palace of Patai Rawal with tanks, Makai Gate, Tarapore Gate, The fort of Pavagadh, ruined Hindu and Jain temples, Navlakha Kothar, and Makai Gate, Tarapore Gate, The fort of Pavagadh etc. is worth exploring.
The Royal precincts within fortified walls, the entrance gate or city gate, the mosque outside the fortifications, the royal walkway leading into the palace, and the second enclosure consisting of unexplored Jahanpanah are all still present at the site. The city's urban planning reveals well-kept and paved streets that lead to the city centre.
The residential area contains both rich and poor people's homes, with rich people's homes featuring scenic gardens and water channels. The housing complex is surrounded by public parks and pavilions. The Pavagarh Hills, on the other hand, are densely packed with temples, mosques, and tombs. The Patha (pilgrim's route) is a walk up the hill from the plains that is considered the "soul of Champaner" because it has thousands of steps and is embellished with ornamental and essential structures.
The development of rainwater harvesting methods in the Pavagadh hills (dubbed the "hill of hundred pools") and innumerable wells in the city of Champaran, dubbed the "city of thousand wells" was one of the two historic monuments centres' most innovative features. The Vishamitri River is the only stream that emerges from the Pavgadh hills, and it was used to irrigate Champaner's wells and Pavagadh's tanks. Pilgrims and other utilitarian, recreational, spiritual, and aesthetic needs were met by the tanks. Some of the tanks were constructed by erecting embankments and channelling the water into stone cisterns.
The Ganga, Yamuna, and Saraswathi Kunds (in the Mauliya plateau); the Wada Talao, the city's largest water tank fed by rivulets; the innovative Gaben Shah tank; the exquisitely ornamented helical stepwells such as those in the public gardens and at the city's entrance; and the Royal summer pavilions are just a few of the city's famous water structures. The "Amir’s Manzil" a water channel in a noble's house, is cited as an example of the "superb workmanship of water structures built by those responsible for the palatine and religious architecture of Champaner."
FORTRESSES AND WALLS
The fortress built by Gujarat's Solanki kings was strengthened by the Khichi Chauhans. Sultan Mahmud Begadah took control of the fort in 1484 and renamed it Muhammadabad Champaner. They are massive, with sandstone walls connected by bastions at regular intervals and elegant balconies. The fortifications have several gates, as well as barracks and jails within the enclosed area.
The west gate has brick and cement fortifications that run from the ridge to the north, then a mile of freely laid stone wall, then a second line of old wall that rises to join the first line (known as atak) of fortifications on the hill. A 150-foot-long guard room with double gates stands at the citadel's approach, with stone windows adorned with intricate carvings. To the east of the Citadel is Shikari Kot, or Hunters Fort. The Bada Talao, or Great Lake, is located near the palace ruins. [requires citation]
The earliest temple on Pavagadh hill in the Mauliya plateau is dedicated to Lakulish and dates from the 10th–11th centuries. The temple, however, is in ruins, with only the gudha mandapa (sanctum sanctorum) and Ardha mandapa (antarala) remaining. The images in this temple include Lakulish, Dakshinmurthi, Brahma, Vishnu, Gajendramoksha, Shiva in various forms, Indra, seated Ambika, and Surasundaris. With garbhagriha, mandapa, and an entrance porch, the temple was built in the Hindu temple architecture style. It was ornately decorated, mostly with stone carvings.
The Jain temples in Pavagadh are also noteworthy. They are divided into three groups: The Navalakka temples are part of the Bhavanaderi temples near Naqqarkhana gate; the second group is dedicated to the Tirthankaras Suparshvanatha and Chandraprabha; and the third group is near the Prva temple next to the Dudhia tank on the southeast side of Pavagarh Hill (Mataji's cliff). In these temples, the Garbabrihas are enshrined with beautiful stone images of Tirthankaras.
The Kalika Mata Temple is the most visited temple on the hill. It has three goddess images: the central image is of Kalika Mata, flanked on the right by Kali and on the left by Bahuchara Mata. The shrine of Sadanandsha pir, a Muslim saint revered in the region, is housed in the temple's spire. It is known for tantric worship and is the third of Gujarat's major Shakti Peethas.
The Jami Masjid (also spelled "Jama Masjid") near the east gate, built by Sultan Begada, is one of the most notable of the 114 monuments listed by the Baroda Heritage Trust among the five mosques in excellent condition. It is one of the finest mosques in Western India, with a blend of Hindu and Muslim architecture that preserves the Islamic ethos and elegant interiors. The ornamentation of the surface areas of the mosque and tomb in the Jami Masjid includes symbols of Sun motifs, diamonds, pots and vines, and lotus insignia that were used in earlier temples. This mosque has three oblong mural plaques with engravings of hymns from the Koran, one at the top of the pulpit and the other two on the sides.
The Kevada Masjid, the Ek Minarka Masjid (single dome mosque); the Panch Mahuda ka masjid (five-domed mosque) in a forested area; the Shehrka Masjid (city mosque), an elegant structure located inside the citadel; and the Nagina Masjid (jewel mosque), built with pure white stone to the south of the citadel; and a stepwell decorated with arches is close