Chambal river is one of the tributary of Yamuna river system. It originates Janapav near Indore in the south slope of Vindhya arrange that is situated in Madhya Pradesh. Chambal river is also a part of the great Gangetic plains.
The river flows through Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and finally joins Yamuna river in Uttar Pradesh. The Chambal river also forms the boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. It is one of the clearest perennial rivers of India.
FACTS ABOUT CHAMBAL RIVER
• In the ancient scriptures Chambal river is known as Charmanyavati. In the epic Mahabharata the Chambal river forms the southern boundary of Panchala state. King Drupada ruled the southern states of Panchalas along the river. The northern region was a part of the kingdom of Shakuni.
• It is a myth or believed since ages that after the disrobing incident of Draupadi, she cursed anyone who drinks the waters of the river will perish. This may be one of the reasons why the river bank does not have any bid cities or settlement on its banks except kota.
• The river is 1024 km long.
• It originates from the Sringar Chouri peak on the northern slopes of Vindhayan Range in the state of Madhya Pradesh.
• The river emergence point is near Mandav which is 67.5 km from a place in Indore district called Mhow.
• It is the largest river in the state of Rajasthan.
• The Chambal river joins Yamuna river in the Etawah district of Uttar Pradesh.
• The Chambal and its tributaries drain the Malwa region of northern Madhya Pradesh, whereas the Banas, which rises in the Aravalli Range and drains southeastern Rajasthan, is a tributary of the Chambal.
• At Pachnada near Bhareh in Uttar Pradesh, it comes to a head at a confluence of five rivers: the Chambal, Kwari, Yamuna, Sind, and Pahuj.
The Chambal basin is bordered by
1. North, separated from the Luni and Yamuna basins by a ridge
2.by the Vindhyan range in the south
3.by the Aravali range in the west
4.On the east, there is a mountain that separates it from the Kunwari and Sind rivers of the Yamuna basin and the Chambal basin. It has a total catchment area of 1,39,468 square kilometres.
On this river, three major dams and one barrage have been built.
• The Gundhi Sagar Dam is located on the Madhya Pradesh-Rajasthan border.
• Rana Pratap Sagar is located in Rawat Bhata, Rajasthan, near the Gandhi Sagar Dam.
• Near the Rana Pratap Sagar Dam is the Jawahar Sagar Dam.
• The Kota Barrage is located 48 kilometres downstream of the Rana Pratap Sagar Dam in Kota city.
TRIBUTARIES OF CHAMBAL RIVER
• Kali Sindh
FLORA AND FAUNA IN CHAMBAL RIVER
• The Chambal River is considered pollution-free, and it is home to a diverse riverine fauna that includes two species of crocodilians, the mugger and gharial, eight species of freshwater turtles, smooth-coated otters, gangetic river dolphins, skimmers, black-bellied terns, sarus cranes, and black-necked storks, among others.
• The number of dolphins in the Chambal river has decreased by 13% in four years, according to the latest census data published by the Madhya Pradesh forest department.
• In the 435-kilometer-long Chambal river sanctuary, which runs through three states (Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan), there are only 68 dolphins left. The sanctuary's major feature is the Gangetic Dolphins.
• The downward trend started in 2016, when there were 78 dolphins.
Reasons for the declining population of dolphins
Unfavorable Habitat: Because of fragmented habitats, it is vulnerable to poaching and entanglement in fishing gear.
Poaching: Poaching is an issue for both dolphins and gharials because of fragmented habitats.
Illegal sand mining is rife in MP's Bhind and Morena, as well as Rajasthan's Dholpur, endangering the river's entire ecosystem.
Furthermore, the forest team never receives local assistance.
To protect the river's ecology and fauna, the Supreme Court's Central Empowered Committee (CEC) enforced a mining prohibition in the sanctuary area in 2006.
Water consumption: Chambal is a lifeline for three states: MP, UP, and Rajasthan, and inhabitants withdraw water on a regular basis.
It has resulted in a progressive drop in water levels, which must be addressed in order to save the dolphins and gharial.
Dolphins are a fragile species with a scarcity of research. A research of their favourable environment and communication system is required.
The MP Forest Department has cooperated with scientists from the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) to conduct research in Chambal to protect and increase the number of dolphins.
Life flourishes during 2020 covid-19 pandemic
Due to a drop in demand for fish and sand during the Covid-19 pandemic-induced lockdown, the aquatic animal population in the Chambal river, which runs through Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh, has expanded dramatically in the last year.
According to the survey, improved aquatic life in the Chambal river resulted in a 17 percent increase in the population of gharial (a species of crocodile) and a 24 percent increase in the population of crocodiles.
Between 2016 and 2020, the dolphin population declined every year, but it has now increased for the first time in six years.
Experts believe the state government should devise a strategy to sustain this level of aquatic life and environment once the lockdown is lifted, so that net fishing and sand mining do not expand.
NATIONAL CHAMBAL SANCTUARY
On the tri-junction of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh, the National Chambal Sanctuary is located along the Chambal River.
The sanctuary was established "to aid in the restoration of "ecological health" to a major north Indian river system and to provide complete protection for the critically endangered gharial" (Gavialis gangeticus).