5g Technology


The fifth-generation mobile network is referred to as 5G. After 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G networks, it is a new global wireless standard. 5G allows for the creation of a new type of network that connects virtually everyone and everything, including machines, objects, and devices. 5G wireless technology is designed to provide multi-gigabit per second peak data speeds, ultra-low latency, increased reliability, massive network capacity, increased availability, and a more consistent user experience to a larger number of users. Higher performance and efficiency allow for new user experiences and industry connections.
 
ABOUT
• It is a next-generation cellular technology that will provide ultra-low latency communication that is faster and more reliable.
• According to a government panel report, peak network data speeds for 5G are expected to be in the range of 2-20 Gigabits per second (Gbps).
• This contrasts with 4G link speeds in India, which average 6-7 Megabits per second (Mbps) versus 25 Mbps in advanced countries.
• It is likely that the technology will be used for more than just delivering services to personal mobile devices.UPSC Prelims 2024 dynamic test series
• The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is in charge of defining and driving 5G usage standards. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project is an umbrella term for a number of standards organizations which develop protocols for mobile telecommunications.
 
5G TechnologySALIENT FEATURES
1. Capability: In comparison to previous versions, 5G will provide much faster mobile broadband service and will support previous services such as mission critical communication and the massive Internet of Things (IoT).
 
2. Speed: It will be much faster than its predecessors, with a peak delivering rate of up to 20 Gbps and an average of 100Mbps.
 
3. Capacity: Traffic capacity and network efficiency will be increased by up to 100 times.
 
4. Spectrum usage: Every bit of spectrum, from low bands below 1 GHz to high bands, will be better utilised.
 
5. Latency: It should have a lower latency and better instantaneous, real-time data access.
 
6. Like 4G LTE, 5G uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), but the new 5G NR (New Radio)air interface will improve OFDM and increase data delivery flexibility.
 
5G APPLICATIONS IN THE REAL WORLD
• ENHANCED MOBILE BROADBAND
5G mobile technology can usher in new immersive experiences like VR and AR with faster, more uniform data rates, lower latency, and lower cost-per-bit, in addition to making our smartphones better.
 
• MISSION-CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS
With ultra-reliable, available, low-latency links, 5G can enable new services that can transform industries, such as remote control of critical infrastructure, vehicles, and medical procedures.
The 5G network's high data speed would benefit cloud systems by improving software updates, music, and navigation. The cost of satellite broadcasting would be reduced significantly.
 
• MASSIVE IOT
5G is designed to connect a massive number of embedded sensors in virtually everything by allowing data rates, power, and mobility to be scaled down, resulting in extremely lean and low-cost connectivity solutions. Uploading and downloading will be faster on the 5G network.
 
• ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND DATA ANALYSIS
5G will eventually aid in the growth of Artificial Intelligence and Big Data due to its high speed and low latency. Business value is expected to be generated across a variety of industries as businesses use 5G as a conduit to process and analyse more data. The use of 5G networks will aid in the country's increased digitization, resulting in increased GDP and job creation.
 
• ROBOTICS 
Huawei is testing a remotely controlled drill connected to 5G technology to make mining safer. Remotely controlled robots for medical surgery, allowing a doctor thousands of miles away to perform surgery on a patient.
 
MAJOR DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 4G AND 5G
1. When compared to 4G, the 5G network provides better network coverage.
2. 5G data bandwidth is greater than 1 gigabit per second, whereas 4G data bandwidth is between 2 mbps to 1 gigabit per second.
3. The latency of the 5G network is lower than that of the 4G network.
4. The battery consumption of a 5G network is lower than that of a 4G network.
5. In comparison to the 4G network, the 5G network operates at a higher frequency band, allowing for faster data transmission.
6. 5G networks can better understand the type of data being requested and can switch to a lower-power mode when not in use or when supplying low rates to specific devices, but switch back to a higher-powered mode for things like HD video streaming.
7. They are less clustered with existing cellular data, allowing them to be used in the future to meet rising bandwidth demands; they are also highly directional, allowing them to be used alongside other wireless signals without interfering.
8. This is in contrast to 4G towers, which fire data in all directions, wasting both energy and power by beaming radio waves at locations that aren't even requesting internet access.
9. Because 5G uses shorter wavelengths, antennas can be much smaller than current antennas while maintaining precise directional control.
 
5G TechnologyMAJOR DISADVANTAGES OF 5G
1. OBSTRUCTIONS CAN IMPACT CONNECTIVITY
Because frequency waves can only travel a short distance, 5G connectivity has a limited range. The fact that 5G frequency is disrupted by physical obstructions such as trees, towers, walls, and buildings adds to this disadvantage. The high-frequency signals will be blocked, disrupted, or absorbed by the obtrusions. To compensate for this setback, the telecommunications industry is extending existing cell towers to extend the broadcast range.
 
2. INITIAL COSTS FOR ROLLOUT ARE HIGH
The costs of developing 5G infrastructure or making changes to existing cellular infrastructure will be significant. This sum will be compounded by the ongoing maintenance costs required to maintain high-speed connectivity, and it is likely that customers will bear the brunt of these hefty bills. Cellular companies are looking for ways to cut costs by utilising alternative options such as network sharing.
 
3. LIMITATIONS OF RURAL ACCESS
While 5G may bring true connectivity to primarily urban areas, those living in rural areas will not necessarily benefit from the connection. Many remote areas across the country currently lack access to any form of cellular connectivity. The 5G carriers intend to focus on large cities with large populations, eventually expanding to the outskirts, but this is unlikely to happen anytime soon. As a result, 5G communication will only benefit a small portion of the population.
 
4. UPLOAD SPEEDS DON’T MATCH DOWNLOAD SPEEDS
The download speeds of 5G technology are extremely fast, reaching up to 1.9Gbps in some cases. However, upload speeds rarely exceed 100Mbps, so they're not quite as impressive as they seem. However, when compared to existing mobile connectivity, upload speeds are faster than those seen with 4G LTE.
 
5. DETRACTING FROM THE AESTHETICS
M5. DETRACTING FROM THE AESTHETICS Increased infrastructure development will be required for 5G, which will not necessarily be seen as a good thing by local residents.
 
6. BATTERY DRAIN/HEAT
5G-enabled phones will experience a massive battery drain. If you want to use your phone for a full day on a single charge while using a 5G connection, you'll need better battery technology. Users are also complaining that while using 5G, their phones are almost too hot to touch.

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