History Of The Chak Dynasty In Medieval India (1555–1586 Ce)



After the Shah Mir dynasty, the Chak dynasty ruled Kashmir. According to legend, the Chaks are native Kashmiris of Dardic descent. From 1555 to 1586, the Chak dynasty held power. The first Chak leader is thought to have been Ghazi Chak. The dynasty gained power after the passing of the Turco-Mongol military leader Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat. 
History of The Chak Dynasty In Medieval India (1555–1586 Ce)

Background of The Chak Dynasty

•    Kashmir was a target for several kingdoms due of its stunning scenery.
•    Every dynasty has a unique organizational structure. The Chak dynasty, however, is thought to have controlled Kashmir from 1555 to 1586.
•    There had been numerous administrative reforms throughout the Chak dynasty.
•    The Mughals gained control of the valley in 1586 under diplomatic king Akbar, who established the foundation for the Mughal monarch.
•    But after defeating Ibrahim Lodi, Babar rose to become a powerful Mughal king in the Indian subcontinent.
•    The Dar tribe of Gilgit Hunza was the first group the Chaks were connected to.
•    According to historians, the Chaks first ruled Kashmir after arriving from Dardistan (Gilgit Hunza Region). The Chak dynasty benefited significantly from Shah Mir's recruitment of Chaks into his army.
•    Because they were both physically powerful and cognitively astute, the Chaks were well-known and powerful in the valley.
•    The Chaks eventually suffered a serious setback under Sultan Zainul Abidin. Pando Chak, the legendary Chak leader, was in control at the time.
•    A Sunni follower was treated unfairly by Mirza Haider Doulat since the Chaks were mainly Shia. When the soul of Mirza Haider Doulat passed away, Chak's power and position were reinstated.
•    By forming marriage ties with powerful landowners and continuing to control Kashmir, they expanded their power once more. The Chak dynasty had hierarchical rulers who consistently oversaw Kashmir.
•    Sultan Habib Shah, who ruled the sultanate dynasty from 1561 to 1563, was overthrown by Gazi Chak, who then created the Chak dynasty in Kashmir.
•    As Gazi Chak's health deteriorated in his final years as ruler, the dynasty lost strength.
•    Hussain Shah Chak, his brother, was in charge of the throne between 1563 and 1570. There were various capable leaders who headed the Chak dynasty in Kashmir. They put a lot of effort into developing a special organizational structure.

Muhammad Ghazi Shah Chak (1555 Ce)

•    Nasir ud-din Muhammad Ghazni Shah, the first Chak Sultan of Kashmir, rose to the throne between 1561 and 1563.
•    He was a smart guy who made repeated attempts to purge the state of various evils using his mind. He made a special effort to fix the finances.
•    A number of political and environmental events had led to the treasure's depletion.
•    In order to safeguard the administration of justice, he nominated high-level Governors. Justice was deeply infused in his blood.
•    He brought the kingdom's traditional areas, including as Skardu, Gilgit, Kiahtiwar, and Pakli, back into some semblance of peace.
•    Despite being a Shiite, The Gazi Shah allowed everyone to practice their religion freely. According to the script of Nawadrial Akbar, Gazi Shah was bigoted by nature.
•    He possessed all the charismatic traits and worked to improve their management. Under his leadership, a department of alertness and energy existed.
•    By establishing effective law and order, he attempted to defend the state against Mughal incursions. 
History of The Chak Dynasty In Medieval India (1555–1586 Ce)

Yusuf Shah Chak (1579 To 1586 Ce)

•    Over Kashmir, Yousuf Shah Chak held sway. He succeeded his father, Ali Shah Chak, as ruler of Kashmir from 1579 until 1586 AD.
•    The last independent Muslim king of the Kashmir Valley was Yousuf Shah Chak. The Chaks were split into sectarian divisions, with Regi Chak and Shams Chak leading the major Sunni portion of the clan and Nurbakhshiya Sufis, who some have referred to as a Shia offshoot.
•    The Chaks at this time were recent converts to Islam who went by the names Shankar, Pandu, and Lankar.
•    He was a romantic figure who wed Hubba Khotan, also known as Zoon or Zooni, a famous Kashmiri poet.
•    He was naturally extravagant, which led to a decrease in state administration.
•    In an effort to retake or restore his reign, he travelled to Agra to speak with Akbar.
•    He was a remarkable leader because he eliminated several taxes, including Jaziys, the bagger system, and Mir Bhari (a levy on boot men).
•    During his rule, several inept officials and nobles, such Haider Chak and Muhammad Bhat, sparked a mutiny.

Chak Dynasty - Administration

•    During Suhadeva's rule, the Chaks arrived in Kashmir, and Sultan Shams-ud-din awarded them permanent status.
•    However, they started to participate in the kingdom during the rule of Muhammad Shah, and by forging marriage pacts with the ruling family, they elevated their status and authority.
•    They eventually overcame all of their opponents and established themselves as the nation's top power thanks to their cunning, vigor, tenacity, and bravery.
•    A Shia branch of Muslim theology known as Chaks maintained that everyone was free to practice any religion they chose and that no one had the right to impose limitations on the beliefs of others.
•    The Chak regime was an absolute monarchy, both legally and politically. It was not, however, a failed autocracy.
•    Law, the aristocracy, and the Ulmas all served to restrain their power. Of course, it depends on the skills and disposition of each ruler.
•    The Khutba was recited aloud to the Chak rulers, and coins were made in their honor.
•    The Chak kings held a monopoly on all authority, whether legislative, executive, or judicial. They were good and loving rulers who ruled with an enlightened despotism.

Religion In The Chak Dynasty

•    The first Shi'a dynasty to rule northern India was the Chak dynasty.
•    The dynasty's leaders played a significant role in the spread of Shi'ism.
•    According to the Shia sect of Islam known as Chaks, everyone is free to practice whichever religion they want without interference from anyone else.
•    Ali Shah Chak placed a strong emphasis on Islamic beliefs to maintain order in the government. Because of this, his region's government was founded on religious beliefs.
History of The Chak Dynasty In Medieval India (1555–1586 Ce)

Architecture of The Chak Dynasty

•    In Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan, there is a fortification from the 17th century called Muzaffarabad Fort, also referred to as Red Fort.
•    The Chak dynasty of Kashmir built it.
•    Locally, the fort is referred to as "Rutta Qila" or simply "qila."
•    The Mughal threat to the city was anticipated by the Chak rulers of Kashmir. An advantageous position saw the start of construction in 1559.
•    The fort lost its significance when Kashmir was captured by the Mughal Empire in 1587.
•    Sultan Muzaffar Khan of the Bomba Dynasty, who founded Muzaffarabad, oversaw the fort's completion in 1646.


The Chaks from Darads, or Dardistan, who came to Kashmir were fierce and turbulent people with a lot of physical strength. Shah Mir gave them prominence when he founded the Sultanate. Their leader during Zainul Abidin's rule was Pandu Chak. But because of his deliberate actions, the sultan beheaded him and some other prominent Chaks. After settling in Kupwara and Trahgam, the remaining Chak family adopted the names Kupwari and Trahgami Chaks.

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