Communism

Communism

Communism is a political, economic, and philosophical ideology that aims to create a classless society based on equal rights for all, regardless of social class (labour or bourgeoisie), over the means of production. This ideology advocates for the radical uprooting of the wealthy ruling class in order to establish a democratic free society with no class divisions and shared ownership of the means of production. 
 
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were two of the most prominent proponents of communism in the nineteenth century. They went into great detail about the concept in the Communist Manifesto of 1848, which became the standard document for socialist movements throughout 19th century Europe and during the Industrial Revolution.
 
CommunismDIFFERENCE BETWEEN COMMUNISM AND SOCIALISM
The people own the factors of economic production in both communism and socialism.  The main difference is that under communism, the state (rather than individual citizens) owns and controls most property and economic resources, whereas under socialism, all citizens share equally in economic resources as allocated by a democratically elected government.
 
AIM OF COMMUNISM
The goal of communism, according to communist writers and thinkers, is to create a stateless, classless society.  This, according to communist thinkers, can happen if the people usurp the power of the bourgeoisie (the ruling class that owns the means of production) and replace it with worker control.
 
ORIGINS OF COMMUNISM
• Although the term communism was not coined until the 1840s, societies that could be classified as communist were described in Plato's Republic in the 4th century BCE.UPSC Prelims 2024 dynamic test series
• That work depicted an ideal society in which the ruling class is solely concerned with the welfare of the entire community.
• The first Christians practised a simple form of communism, and Thomas More described an imaginary society in Utopia (1516) in which money is abolished and people share meals, houses, and other goods in common.
• However, communism is most closely associated with Karl Marx, who outlined the system in The Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels (1848).
• The inequities created by the Industrial Revolution influenced Marx's embrace of communism.
• The Soviet Union emerge Supreme After the October Revolution
• November 7, 1917: The Bolsheviks, who adhere to Marxism, seize power during Russia's October Revolution and become the first communist government, with Vladimir Lenin at the helm. Later that month, the leftist Socialist Revolutionaries defeat the Bolsheviks in an election, but Lenin takes power through military force, despite his promises of "bread, land, and peace." The Red Terror (executions of Czar officials), prisoner-of-war labour camps, and other police state tactics are established during this time.
 
TYPES OF COMMUNISM
• MARXISM 
He believed that no economic class should have power over another, including wage workers, landowners, and so on. Everyone should contribute what they can, and everyone should receive what they require, according to Marx.
 
• MARXISM-LENINISM
Marxism-Leninism is a philosophical school of communism that emerged as the dominant trend among Communist parties in the 1920s. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the establishment of the Soviet Union, Leninism's philosophy was built on and extended Marxism's ideas, and it served as the theoretical foundation for Soviet Communism's ideology.
 
• TROTSKYISM
Trotskyism is the Marxist philosophical model championed by Leon Trotsky (1879 - 1940).
In declaring the need for an international proletarian revolution and firm support for a true proletarian dictatorship based on direct autonomous ideologies, his politics differed sharply from Joseph Stalin's Marxism-Leninism.
 
• LUXEMBURGISM
Luxemburgism is a revolutionary theoretical model based on Rosa Luxemburg's writings, which falls under the category of Communism (1870 - 1919). Her politics differed from those of Lenin and Trotsky primarily because she disagreed with their concept of "democratic centralism" which she saw as undemocratic.
 
• MAOISM
Maoism is a branch of Communism that arose from the teachings of Chinese leader Mao Zedong (or Mao Tse-tung) (1893 - 1976) and was practised in the People's Republic of China following the Chinese Revolution of 1949. Maoism evolved from Stalin's Marxism-Leninism, but introduced new ideas such as Social-Imperialism (Mao accused the Soviet Union of dominating and exploiting smaller countries in its sphere of influence to the point of organising their economies around Soviet, not domestic, needs), the Mass Line (a method of leadership that seeks to learn from the masses and immerse the political headship in the concerns of the people), and the Cultural Revolution (a period in which Mao accused the Soviet Union
 
• LEFT COMMUNISM
Left Communism refers to a set of Communist viewpoints held by the Communist Left that claim to be more Marxist and proletarian than Leninism and its successors. Left Communists supported the Russian Revolution but disagreed with the Bolsheviks' methods.
 
• COUNCIL COMMUNISM
Council Communism is a far-reaching left movement that began in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s and is still active today as a theoretical and activist position within both left-wing Marxism and Libertarian Socialism.
 
• ANARCHIST COMMUNISM 
Anarchist Communism advocates for the total abolition of the state and capitalism in favour of a horizontal network of voluntary associations, workers' councils, and/or commons, through which everyone is free to meet their own needs. Mikhail Bakunin (1814 - 1876), a Russian, and Peter Kropotkin, a Russian, led the movement (1842 - 1921).
 
• EURO COMMUNISM
Various Western European Communist parties flourished in the 1970s and 1980s to develop a philosophy and practise of social change that was more applicable to Western European egalitarianism and less allied to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's party line.
 
• RELIGIOUS COMMUNISM
Religious Communism is a form of communism that is based on religious beliefs, such as Christian, Taoist, Jain, Hindu, or Buddhist beliefs. It usually refers to a group of classless and utopian religious societies that practise the voluntary abolition of private property, allowing society's benefits to be distributed according to individual needs and everyone to work according to their abilities.
 
CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNISM IN THEORY
1. Land property is abolished, and all land rents are applied to public purposes.
2. A high income tax that is progressive or graduated
3. Elimination of all inheritance rights
4. Confiscation of all immigrants' and rebels' property
5. Establishment of industrial armies and equal liability to labour for all (especially for agriculture)
6. The gradual eradication of the distinction between city and countryside
7. Free public school education for all children and the abolition of child factory labour
8. Credit centralised in the hands of the state
9. The government would be in charge of communication and transportation.
10. State factories and production instruments would cultivate wastelands and improve soil quality.
In the last three points of the manifesto, state ownership is mentioned, making even this pure vision of communism sound like socialism. State ownership, on the other hand, is a valid stage in the transition to communism, according to Marx.
 
CommunismADVANTAGES
• Assists in the creation of a more equal society with strong social communities.
• Prioritize social welfare over all else.
• Supports universal free education and health care.
• Communism has a centrally planned economy that can mobilise large amounts of economic resources, carry out massive projects, and generate industrial power quickly.
• It is able to move so quickly because it prioritises the welfare of the entire population over individual self-interest in order to achieve critical social goals.
• Societies can be completely transformed by communist command economies to conform to the planner's vision. Stalinist Russia, Maoist China, and Castro's Cuba are just a few examples. Russia's command economy built up military strength in order to defeat the Nazis, then quickly rebuilt the economy following WWII.
 
DISADVANTAGES
• Diminishes humanity and the significance of human rights.
• Philosophy does not explain how to run an economy properly.
• Prices are set by the government, not by supply and demand.
• Planners lose valuable information about what people want from these prices. They are unable to obtain current information about consumer needs, resulting in a surplus of some items and shortages of others.
• As a result, citizens create a black market to trade the items that the planners do not provide, undermining trust in Marx's pure communism. People are losing faith in the government's ability to provide "to each according to his needs."
• It has been used by the ruling party to establish dictatorship and oppression.
 
COMMUNIST COUNTRIES
China, Cuba, Laos, North Korea, and Vietnam are the last five communist countries. They are not pure communism, but rather a transition from socialism, in which the state owns the supply components. According to Marx, there must be a point of transition between capitalism and the ideal communist economy. A mixed economy is used in modern communist societies.

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