Kaveri River

Kaveri River

Kaveri river is considered as one the major rivers of India and the prime source of water for Tamil Nadu and Karnataka state. It is also know as the “Dakshin Ganga” or Ganga of the South.
 
Over the years there have been several disputes over the distribution of Kaveri water between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. In the latest Supreme Court verdict, Karnataka has been allotted extra 14 TMC while Tamil Nadu will get additional 177.25 TMC of Kaveri water.
 
FACTS ABOUT KAVERI RIVER
•    Kaveri river is called Dashin Ganga or Ganga of the South.
•    It originates from Talakaveri on Bhrahmagiri range at an altitude of 1341m. The Brahmagiri range is located near Cherangala village in Kodaku district Karnataka.
•    The total length of the Kaveri river is 800km.
•    It flows in the south eastern direction for about 705 km. A major part of the river falls in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
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•    It falls in to Bay of Bengal near Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu. 
•    Kaveri is a significant and longest river of south India.
•    Throughout its course it breaks into several tributaries. These tributaries form deltas that are together called as the “garden of southern India”.
•    Kaveri river flows through the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and UT of Puducherry.
•    It is bordered on the west by the Western Ghats, on the east and south by the Eastern Ghats. On the northern side ridges separate it from the Krishna and Pennar basins.
•    The Nilgiris, which extend eastwards to the Eastern ghats and divide the basin into two natural and political regions - the Karnataka plateau in the north and the Tamil Nadu plateau in the south.
•    The basin is divided into three parts physiographically: the Westen Ghats, the Mysore Plateau, and the Delta.
•    The delta region is the basin's most fertile area. Black soils, red soils, laterites, alluvial soils, forest soils, and mixed soils are the most common soil types found in the basin. Red soils cover a large portion of the basin. In delta areas, alluvial soils can be found.
•    The S-W Monsoon and the N-E Monsoon both contribute to rainfall in the Karnataka basin. The North-East Monsoon brings good flows to Tamil Nadu's basin.
•    The south-west monsoon brings rain to the upper catchment area in the summer, and the retreating north-east monsoon brings rain to the lower catchment area in the winter.
•    As a result, it is almost a perennial river with fewer flow fluctuations, making it ideal for irrigation and hydroelectric power generation.
•    The picturesque Sivasamudram Falls, which plunge a total of 100 metres and reach a width of 300 metres during the rainy season, are located near Sivasamudram.
•    Mysore, Bengaluru, and the Kolar Gold Fields all receive hydroelectric power from the falls.
•    As a result, the Kaveri is one of the best-managed rivers, with 90 to 95 percent of its irrigation and power generation capacity already tapped.
•    The water from the river flows into the Bay of Bengal. Agricultural land covers the majority of the basin, accounting for 66.21 percent of the total area.
 
Kaveri River
RIVER FLOW
•    The river flows into the Deccan Plateau from the Brahmagiri range and reaches Shivanasamudram in Karnataka's Mandya district.
•    At Shivanasamudram, the river splits into two sections and plunges 91 metres in a series of falls and rapids.
•    One branch forms the island of Srirangapatna, while the other forms the Shivanasamudra waterfall.
•    After the fall, the two branches join and flow through a wide gorge known as Mekadatu (Goats Leap) before continuing on to form the Karnataka-Tamilnadu border.
•    After passing through Hogennekkal Falls, the Kaveri River turns south and enters Mettur Reservoir.
•    Bhavani joins from Mettur Reservoir's right side.
•    Kaveri then turns east and enters Tamilnadu's plains.
•    Now, on the right bank, two more tributaries, Noyil and Amaravati, join Kaveri, and the river widens and flows as AKHANDA Kaveri.
•    After passing through Thrichi District, the river splits into two branches: the southern branch and the northern branch.
•    The northern branch is known as the COLERON, while the southern branch is known as the Kaveri.
•    At Srirangam Island, the Kaveri Delta begins, and two branches join.
•    The Kaveri Delta is the most fertile area of the Kaveri basin.
 
TRIBUTARIES
Left Bank: 
•    Harangi
•    Hemavati
•    Shimsha
•    Arkavati.
 
Right Bank: 
•    Lakshmantirtha
•    Kabbani
•    Suvarnavati
•    Bhavani
•    Noyil 
•    Amaravati 
 
LAKSHMANA TIRTHA :
It rises in the district of Kodag and flows eastward.
In Krishna Raja Sagar Lake, it joins the Kaveri River.
 
KABINI RIVER :
It rises in Kerala's Wayanad District at the confluence of two small rivers.
It then merges with the Kaveri River in the Mysore District of Karnataka.
Nagahole National Park and Kabini Wildlife Sanctuary is situated on the banks of the Kabini River.
Kabini Dam is built on the Kabini River that discharges a large amount of water into Mettur Reservoir.
 
RIVER SUVARNAVATI :
 The river Suvarnavati, also known as Honnuhole, originates in Mysore's Nasurghat hills.
Suvarnavati river is 88 kilometres long.
 
BHAVANI RIVER :
It Originates in the Western Ghats near Nigiri Hills.
In Erode District, Tamil Nadu, the Bhavani river joins the Kaveri.
Mudumalai National Park is located on the banks of the Bhavani River. 
Bhavani Sagar Dam is on the Bhavani River in Erode District.
Kodiveri Dam, on the Bhavani River, is also in Erode District.
 
NOYIL RIVER :
The Noyil River emerges in Tamilnadu's Western Ghats from the Vellingiri hills.
 It joins the Kaveri River in Tamilnadu's Karur district.
The Noyil River has two dams: 1.Orathuppalayam and 2.Aathupalayam
The first dam is in Tirupur district and the second in Karur district.
 
AMARAVATI RIVER :
 It originates from the Manjampatti Valley in Tirupur District, between the Annamalai and Palni Hills, near the Indira Gandhi National Park.
At Karur District, it joins the Kaveri river.
Amaravati Dam on the Amaravati River also falls in the Tirupur district.
 
HARANGI RIVER :
It rises from the Pushpagiri hills in Karnataka's Kodag District.
The river is 50 kilometres long.
It merges with the Kaveri in the Kodag District.
Harangi Reservoir is on the Mysore-Kodag border, on the Harangi River.
 
HEMAVATI RIVER :
 It rises in the Chikmagalur District near Ballala Rayana Durge.
Near Krishnarajasagara, it joins the Kaveri River.
 
SHIMSHA RIVER:
The shimsha river originates from the Tumkur District of Karnataka's Devarayanadurga hill.
Near Shivanasamudra Falls, it joins the Kaveri.
The river's total length is 221 kilometres.
The Markonahalli Dam is located in Tumkur District, and it spans the Shimsha River.
 
ARKAVATI RIVER :
The Nandi Hills in Chikkaballapura District are the source of the Arkavati River.
Near Mekadatu, it joins the Kaveri River.
Tippagondanahalli Reservoir, Hesaraghatta Reservoir, and Manchanabele Dam are three dams that are built on this river.
 
Kaveri River
MEKEDATU PROJECT OF KARNATAKA
•    Mekedatu is an ambitious project by Karnataka government. It is a Rs. 9,000 crore project which aims to store and supply water for the Bengaluru city's drinking needs. 
•    The project is also expected to generate around 400 megawatts (MW) of electricity.
•    The Karnataka state government first approved it in 2017.
•    The detailed project report was approved by the former Ministry of Water Resources, and it is now awaiting approval from the Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change (MoEFCC).
•    Because 63% of the forest area of the Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary will be submerged, the approval from the MoEFCC is critical.
•    Even though Karnataka had said numerous times that the project would not affect the flow of water to Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu went to the Supreme Court (SC) in 2018 to oppose it.
•    Tamil Nadu reiterated its opposition to the project at a meeting of the Cauvery Water Management Authority in June 2020.
 
KAVERI RIVER WATER DISPUTE
•    On the request of the state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian government established the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal in 1990, using its powers under the Inter-State River Water Disputes Act, 1956.
•    The Cauvery River Water Sharing Tribunal ruled in 2007 that Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and the Union territory of Puducherry should share the river's water.
•    The concerned states, on the other hand, appealed the Tribunal's decision to the Supreme Court.
•    The Supreme Court of India issued its decision in 2018, overturning the Tribunal's decision.
 
THE SUPREME COURT VERDICT
•    The Supreme Court ruled that Karnataka will receive an additional 14.75 TMC of river water, while Tamil Nadu will receive 177.25 TMC.
•    Karnataka's allocation, which was previously 270 TMC, has been increased to 284.75 TMC.
•    The Supreme Court also ordered the Indian government to create a scheme to implement the verdict under section 6A of the Inter-State River Water Disputes Act.
•    As a result, on June 1, 2018, the Government of India (GOI) notified the Cauvery Water Management Scheme, which established the Cauvery Water Management Authority (CWMA) and the Cauvery Water Regulation Committee (CWRC).
•    The Union Ministry of Jal Shakti has administrative control over the Cauvery Water Management Authority (CWMA).

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