The Brahmaputra is a trans-boundary river that flows through Tibet, India, and Bangladesh. It is also known as the Yarlung Tsangpo in Tibet, the Siang/Dihang River in Arunachal Pradesh, and Luit, Dilao in Assam. It is the world's ninth-largest river by discharge and the 15th-longest river.
MORE ABOUT BRAHMAPUTRA RIVER
The source of the Brahmaputra River is in southwest Tibet. It is known as the Yarlung Tsangpo River because it flows from the crest/ summit. The river flows through south Tibet, through huge canyons in the Himalayan mountain ranges, and into Arunachal Pradesh (India). It is known as Dihang in Arunachal Pradesh. The river Brahmaputra flows through the Assam Basin to the southwest, and the Jamuna flows through Bangladesh to the south (you should not confuse it with Yamuna of India). It merges with the Ganga in this area to form the Sunderbans, a massive delta.
The Brahmaputra River is approximately 2,900 kilometres long. The river is an important shipping and water supply route. The upper route/course of the river was unknown for a long time, and it was thought to originate from Chemayungdung Glacier; it was only after a geographic expedition in 1884-86 that it was discovered that the source of the Brahmaputra was Angsi Glacier in Tibet Autonomous Region. The river is often referred to as the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra River. The Brahmaputra River is the name given to the Brahmaputra River and its major tributaries, including the Tista, Subansiri, Tsang-Po, and Jamuna.
The Brahmaputra River has an average depth of 124 feet and a maximum depth of 380 feet. In Bangladesh, the Brahmaputra River joins the Ganges and splits into two rivers: the Meghna and Padma.
For the most part, the Brahmaputra River is navigable. Hindus revere the lower reaches of the river basin. In the spring, when the Himalayan mountain ranges' snow melts, the Brahmaputra River is prone to disaster. The Brahmaputra River is also one of the few rivers in the world to experience a tidal bore, which is defined as "a tidal phenomenon in which the leading edge of an incoming tide forms a wave (or waves) of water that travels up a river against the current." A tidal bore creates a lot of turbulence in the water, which can be dangerous because it can cause a sudden rise in water level and flooding.
The Brahmaputa river rises at an elevation of about 5150 metres in the Himalayan Kailash range and flows for about 2900 kilometres through Tibet (China), India, and Bangladesh before joining the Ganga. In India's catchment area, the river Brahmaputra receives a number of tributaries on its north and south banks. The following are the major tributaries:
Six tributaries, the Tista, the Sankosh, the Raidak-I, the Raidak-II, the Torsa, and the Jaldhaka, which flow through northern West Bengal, also join the main Brahmaputra stream but in Bangladesh's plains. The tributaries on the north bank are flashy, with steep slopes, shallow braided channels, coarse sandy beds, and a heavy silt load. Flatter grades, deep meandering channels, fine alluvial soils, and a low silt charge characterise the South bank tributaries.
The following are some of the major rivers in the Brahmaputra basin:
(A) SIANG RIVER
The Siang is the main tributary of the Brahmaputra, also known as the Yarlung Zangbo in China. It flows through China after originating in the Kailash Range of the Himalayas at an elevation of about 5300 metres. The river flows through the Tibetan Plateau for about 1600 kilometres eastward. The river Siang or Dihang flows through a deep gorge at the eastern end of the Himalayas before entering India. The river then flows south/southeast through Arunachal Pradesh for about 230 kilometres before reaching Pasighat. The Lohit and the Dibang rivers join the Siang about 30 kilometres downstream of Pasighat to form the mighty Brahmaputra.
(B) SUBANSIRI RIVER
The Subansiri is a Tibetan river that rises in the mountains. A large “Chu” family of streams drains into the main valley near its source. The “Sikung chu,” which is considered the main source of the subansiri, is the main stream belonging to this “Chu” group. The subansiri is 442 kilometres long in total. NEFA, now renamed Arunachal Pradesh, has 192 kilometres, Assam has 190 kilometres, and Tibet has the remaining kilometres.
(C) KAMENG OR JIABHARALI RIVER
The Kameng rises from uncharted Himalayan hills, presumably in Tibet's territory beyond the AKA & DUFFA Hills. The river Kameng flows for 55 kilometres in a south-westerly direction before reaching Bhalukpong, where its hilly journey comes to an end. The river stretches for nearly 250 kilometres (190 km in Arunachal Pradesh and 60 km in Assam)
(D) DHANSIRI (S) RIVER
The Dhansiri (S) rises below the Laishiang peak in Nagaland's south west corner. The Dhansiri forms the border between the districts of Cachar, Nagaon, and Nagaland from its source to Dimapur. Beyond Dimapur, the river enters Assam's Karbi-Along and Golaghat districts and flows through them. The river stretches for nearly 354 kilometres.
(E) BURIDEHING RIVER
The Buridehing is formed by the confluence of the Namphuk and Namchik rivers, which originate in the Patkai ranges, and the Maganton river, which is the Noadehing's southern branch. The Namphuk, which could be considered the Buridehing's main source. This sub-plains basin's are extremely fertile. Tea gardens cover almost the entire high land. The river Buridehing has a total length of 362 kilometres.
(F) KOPILI RIVER
On the left bank of the Brahmaputra, the river Kopili is one of the most important major tributaries. It begins in the Saipong Reserve Forest in Meghalaya's south-east corner, flows through Meghalaya's borders, the North Cachar Hills, and the Karbi Anglong, then enters the plains of Assam's Nagaon district, and finally joins the Brahmaputra at Kopilimukh. It has a total length of 256 kilometres, of which 78 kilometres are shared by Meghalaya and Assam and the remaining 178 kilometres are in Assam.
(G) MANAS RIVER
The river Manas basin is bordered on the north by the Bhutan range of hills, on the east by the Pohumara river basin, on the west by the Champamati river basin, and on the south by the Brahmaputra river. Up to N.H. Crossing, the catchment area covers 34,160 square kilometres. Near Mathanguri, the river enters the Assam plains and flows through the Manas reserve forest. This river splits into two branches at Mathanguri, the eastern branch known as Beki and the western branch known as Manas. Near Jogighopa, the river Manas meets the river Brahmaputra.
(H) JALDHAKA RIVER
Sikkim gave birth to the Jaldhaka. It travels 186 kilometres through Bhutan, West Bengal's Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, and Cooch Behar districts, and Bangladesh's Kurigram district before joining the Brahmaputra near Kurigram. Its main tributaries are the Murti and the Diana.
(I) TORSA RIVER
The Torsa is born in Tibet's Chumbi valley, where it is known as Machu. The upper reaches of the river run through Bhutanese territory. After travelling 70 kilometres through China and 78 kilometres through Bhutan, it arrives in Indian territory near Phuentsholling. It then flows through West Bengal's Jalpaiguri and Cooech Behar districts before merging with the Brahmaputra in Bangladesh. The river runs for 222 kilometres from its source to Ghughumari (Cooch Behar), with a total catchment area of 4530 square kilometres. It then encounters Raidak-I.
(J) TISTA RIVER
The Tista is North Bengal's largest river. It rises in North Sikkim, in the Himalayas. It runs for nearly 138 kilometres through narrow gorges before debouching into the plains of the Jalpaiguri district at sevoke. It follows a steady course until it reaches Jalpaiguri town, where it undergoes frequent changes. After a 309-kilometer journey, it joins the Brahmaputra near Rangpur, Bangladesh.
• The Brahmaputra basin covers 580,000 square kilometres and is shared by China (50.5%), India (33.6%), Bangladesh (8.1%), and Bhutan (7.8 percent ). In India, the length is 916 kilometres.
• The Brahmaputra basin in India includes the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Nagaland, and Sikkim.
• The basin is oblong in shape, with a maximum east-west length of 1,540 kilometres and a maximum north-south width of 682 kilometres. The basin is located between 23° and 32° north latitude and 82° and 97°50' east longitude. The Tibetan plateau beneath the basin is dotted with numerous glaciers and has an elevation ranging from 3,000 to 5,000 metres.
• The Brahmaputra catchment receives the world's heaviest rainfall.
• Annual floods and river bank erosion are common in the Brahmaputra basin, particularly in Assam.
• Snow covers parts of the Himalayan Mountains in Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, which are part of the Brahmaputra basin.
• According to India WRIS data, the Brahmaputra basin is India's greenest region, accounting for 55.48 percent (107854.26 sq.km.) of the country's forest cover.
• "Majuli" a river island in Assam that UNESCO has designated as the world's largest mid-river delta system, is located in the middle reaches of the Brahmaputra River.
• The Brahmaputra basin's hydroelectric potential has been estimated at 66065 MW.