Types Of Irrigation

  • It is more popular in those regions where ground water is in plenty and where there are few canals. These areas include a large part of the Great Northern Plain, the deltaic regions of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Cauvery, parts of the Narmada and the Tapi valleys and the weathered layers of the Deccan Trap and crystalline rocks and the sedimentary zones of the Peninsula.
  • The greater part of the Peninsular India is not suitable for well irrigation due to rocky structure, uneven surface and lack of underground water. Large dry tracts of Rajasthan, the adjoining parts of Punjab, Haryana, and Gujarat and some parts of Uttar Pradesh have brackish ground water which is not fit for irrigation and human consumption and hence unsuitable for well irrigation.
  • It can be an effective source of irrigation in areas of low level relief, deep fertile soils, perennial source of water and extensive command area. Therefore, the main concentration of canal irrigation is in the northern plain of India, especially the areas comprising Uttar Pradesh Haryana and Punjab. The digging of canals in rocky and uneven areas is difficult and uneconomic. Thus the canals are practically absent from the Peninsular plateau area. However, the coastal and the delta regions in South India do have some canals for irrigation.

  • It is popular in the peninsular plateau area where Andhra Pradesh (Including Telangana) and Tamil Nadu are the leading states. Andhra Pradesh is the largest state of tank irrigation which has about 29 per cent of tank irrigated area of India. About 16 per cent of the total irrigated area of the state is irrigated by tanks. The drainage areas of the Godavari and its tributaries have large number of tanks. Nellore and Warangal are the main districts of tank irrigation. Tamil Nadu has the second largest area which is over 23 per cent of tank irrigated area of India and about one-fifth of the total irrigated area of the state. Tanks comprise an important source of irrigation in the Karnataka Plateau, eastern Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra, interior Odisha and Kerala.

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