Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest: Environment



The Himalayan moist temperate forests, which can be found throughout Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Darjeeling, and Sikkim, are found between 1500 and 3300 meters above sea level. The moist temperate forests of the Himalayas are distinguished by the abundant development of coniferous plants. Rainfall in the himalayan moist temperate forests ranges from 150 to 250 cm per year. 
Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest: Environment

Climatic Conditions

•    Throughout the winter, cyclonic disturbances from the Mediterranean Sea are the main cause of precipitation.
•    With an altitude range of 1500 to 5500 meters, the rainfall amounts range from 1000 to 2500 mm.
•    The height range may be impacted by the ground's aspect and configuration.
•    1150 mm of rain fall falls on the state of Jammu and Kashmir per year (Bhaderwah).
•    The south-west monsoon is responsible for the majority of the rain from July to October.
•    Although they can also flourish on conglomerate and shales, these woods do best on gneiss and schists.
•    The most frequent substrates for the Himalayan moist temperate woods are quartzites, granites, and limestone’s.


•    Without a grasp of soil, it is difficult to understand how forests form and reproduce.
•    The composition of forest soil is constantly changing due to the growth of trees and ground cover plants, as well as the activity of creatures and the influence of climate agents.
•    The bulk of the interfluvial areas of the himalayan moist temperature forests have a mix of sandy and loamy soil, while some have predominantly clayey loam and are reddish in color.
•    In the area east of the Tista River, sandy soils are typical.


•    Coniferous trees are the most prevalent species in these woodlands.
•    These coniferous forests resemble those found in other regions of North America and Europe.
•    Only a few dominant species exist.
•    In actuality, pure crops are more prevalent than mixed ones.
•    In the wetter east, broader-leaved evergreens coexist with dominant conifers.
•    Pine, cedar, silver fir, spruce, and other types of trees rank among the most significant trees.
•    They flourish in a tall, open forest with an understory of shrubs made mostly of bamboos, laurels, rhododendrons, and oaks.
•    Deodar takes over the landscape and creates virgin stands in extraordinarily dry western regions, notably to the west of 80°E longitude, where rainfall ranges from 115 to 180 cm.


•    Among the well-known species are the Himalayan Black Bear, the Barking Deer, and the Royal Bengal Tiger.
•    The Red Panda, Common Langur, Lesser cats, Goral, Serow, Himalayan Monal, Fire-tailed Sunbird, Blue Magpie, and a few reptile and amphibian species are among the distinctive species.
•    High-altitude lakes and rivers now have brown trout (Salmo trutta fario).
•    This woodland is also home to the Himalayan pied hornbill, fairy bluebirds, and other bird species.
•    Fungi and actinomycetes reproduce more than bacteria, regardless of soil depth.
•    The number of microorganisms grows near the soil's surface and decreases as it descends deeper.
Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest: Environment


•    Tree density in community forests has decreased as a result of the brutal clearing of forests.
•    Both reserved and community woods are harvested for fodder, fuel wood, and sawn lumber, destroying the forest's vegetation.
•    The majority of the total fuel wood used by local communities each year comes from community and conserved forests, which are used by both the local population and the villages around.
•    On the other hand, each year, 70.0 percent of all sawn timber is produced by both types of forests.
•    Community woods, however, are especially susceptible to clear-felling or selective logging. 


The moist temperate forests of the Himalayas have a crucial role in moderating climate variability, cooling and purifying the environment, protecting the soil, preserving hill slopes, and buffering enormous amounts of soil nutrients. Additionally, these forests are renowned for supplying high-quality lumber, railway sleepers, and building materials.

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