It is necessary to understand the wide variety of plant and animal species found in India in order to appreciate the country's endemic and endangered species. Several well-known species are endangered as a result of human activity.
COMMON PLANT SPECIES
• It is a tree native to peninsular India's southwest region.
• In deciduous forests, it is a common tree.
• It produces a highly sought-after wood that can be used to make high-quality furniture.
• The Forest Department grows a lot of teak, which is a very expensive wood.
• Teak trees are recognized by their large leaves, which can grow to be more than 40 or 50 centimeters long and 20 centimeters wide.
• This is a common species found in a variety of forest types throughout India's northeastern region, which extends into Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.
• It has bright green foliage and a green canopy that lasts almost the entire year.
• Sal wood is tough and long-lasting. Sal obtains a large quantity of seeds for use in cosmetics.
• This is one of our most popular horticultural species, with various varieties being grown across the country.
• In comparison to the large pulpy fruit used in horticulture, the wild mango tree produces small tangy fruits with a large seed.
• The mango tree has small flowers that are pollinated by insects and is an evergreen species.
4. Fichus species:
• This group of important trees includes peepal, banyan, and many other ficus species.
• They are all ecologically significant because ficus berries are home to a variety of insects, birds, and mammals.
• Flowers can be found inside the berries. A specific wasp pollinates them by laying its eggs inside the berries on which the larvae feed and grow.
• Ficus species are thus referred to as "keystone" species
in the ecosystem
because they support a significant portion of the food web in a variety of ecosystems
• In India, Ficus trees such as Peepal and Banyan are revered and protected.
• One of the most well-known Indian trees, it can grow to be quite large and can live for more than 200 years.
• The tree is widely grown as a shade tree and for its sour, edible fruit, which contains high levels of vitamin C.
• It's a tangy flavouring agent that's added to food.
• It is prized for both its timber and its fuelwood.
• This thorny species is found in semi-arid regions of Western India and the Deccan plateau.
• It can be found sparsely in grassy areas and around farms.
• It stays green all year, even in the driest of climates, and is browsed by wild animals and cattle. Small leaves, bright yellow flowers, and small seedpods with multiple seeds characterize this plant.
These are the common small trees and shrubs found in India's arid and semi-arid regions.
The most common species are Z. Mauritian and Z. jujube.
It's a favorite food of the frugivorous birds.
• It is a medium-sized deciduous tree found throughout the Subcontinent's dry deciduous forests.
• Around 50 Indian species exist.
• It has large rectangular scales on its bark that exfoliate.
• The leaves are elliptical and leathery, and the young leaves are widely used in the preparation of ‘bidis.'
• In Protected Areas, the resulting wildlife disturbance is a serious problem.
9. Coral Tree (Erythrina):
• A common deciduous tree that loses its leaves in February and produces bright scarlet flowers that are pollinated by many birds such as mynas, crows, and sunbirds.
• It has several shiny brown seeds in its long black seed pods that germinate well.
• Cutting and planting the young branches of this tree is another way to propagate it. It's a fast-growing plant that usually blooms after four or five years.
• This group of trees can be found in evergreen forests in the southern part of the Western Ghats and in high-rainfall areas in the northeast of India.
• It reaches enormous heights and has a large girth.
• The seed has two wing-like structures that help it disperse in the wind.
11. Quercus (Oak):
• It is a large tree that belongs to the Quercus genus, which includes many trees known for their beautiful shapes and seasonal colour changes.
• This genus contains 30 to 40 Indian species that can be found in temperate areas of the Himalayas.
• Oaks are among the most durable and strong hardwoods, and were once used to construct ships and bridges. It's a well-known wood for high-end furniture. Some of the species are great for fodder.
• There are 5 species of true pines that are found in India in the Himalayan region.
• Construction, carpentry, and the paper industry all use the wood from these trees.
• Turpentine, rosin, tar, and pitch are all made from pine resin.
• Pine oils are made by distilling the leaves and shoots of pine trees.
• Woody cones produce both male and female spores.
• These plants have a palm-like appearance and are uncommon in India.
• Gymnosperms are made up of cycads and conifers.
• They are among the earliest seed plants, having remained virtually unchanged for over 200 million years.
• In India, there are five species, most of which are found in areas with a lot of rain.
• It is primarily found in coastal plains. A mass of fine roots surrounds the base.
• In India, especially in the southern states, it is a common food ingredient.
• It is widely grown in India's coastal regions and on its islands.
• The tree produces a variety of useful products, including broomsticks from its leaves and fiber from the dried coconut husk.
• These are the world's largest flowering plant family, with over 18,000 species identified.
• In India, 1500 species are found, making it one of the country's largest plant families, with a staggering 700 species concentrated in the Northeastern States.
• These herbs are either terrestrial or epiphytic.
• Flowers come in a variety of bright colors and have a wide range of structure.
• The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are attracted to this colorful petal.
• Orchids, on the other hand, can be found in a variety of ecological conditions, with the exception of extremes such as extremely cold or extremely hot and dry ecosystems.
• This is a small insectivorous plant that grows to be about 5 or 6cm tall and has tiny hairs that secrete a sticky droplet of fluid on which insects become stuck.
• The struggling insect is wrapped in the leaf, which is then slowly digested.
• The flowers on the plant are lovely.
• It thrives in poor-quality, shallow soil. It's a rare plant that grows in small clusters.
• A rhizome-rooted aquatic floating plant with a large rhizome.
• Its leaves are flat and circular, with a waxy coating that protects them from water.
• It can be found in a variety of habitats
, including wetland habitats, shallow parts of lakes, and marshy areas. Delicacies include the rhizome, stalks of the leaves, and seeds.
• In Indian art, the flower has long been a popular motif. The lotus is India's national flower.
• Grasses are the world's second-largest group of flowering plants. They are an important group of plants because they are used to make fiber, paper, and thatching material for roofs, oil, gum, medicines, and a variety of other products.
• Sugarcane, bamboo, and cereals such as rice, wheat, millets, and maize are among the economically important grasses.
• It is a clump of large grass like species that grows to great heights in many of India's forests.
• It's extremely useful in rural areas, where it's used to build huts and make a variety of useful household items like baskets, farm implements, fences, household implements, matting, and so on.
• It is widely used as a raw material in the pulp and paper industry.
• After more than two decades, bamboos bloom. After that, the plant dies.
• The flowering produces thousands of seeds, resulting in the bamboo's slow regrowth.
• Elephants and other large herbivores of the forest, such as gaur and deer, love bamboo.