The development of militant nationalism in India was significantly influenced by external factors, including events occurring outside of India. British fillings were brought about by the degrading treatment of Indians in British colonies, particularly in South Africa. The emergence of more national movements in Egypt, Persia, Turkey, and Russia offered Indians fresh motivation and optimism. The development of modern Japan after 1868 proved that a backward Asian nation could advance without the influence of the West.
Growth of Militant Nationalism
• Politically aware Indians believed that the British Raj was in place to economically exploitation India.
• By 1908, political extremism had also decreased, giving place to militant nationalism, and the moderates' customary tactics of appealing, praying, and conducting public meetings had failed.
• The terrible famine (1896–1900), the bubonic plague in Deccan, and riots during the 1890s all contributed to Indians' growing unease and discontent with the colonial rule.
• Many restrictive legislation were passed. The Criminal Procedure Code, the Post Office Act, and Section 124A were all strengthened to give the government more power.
• Outrage was felt throughout the nation over Curzon's expensive Durbars during times of famine, his Indian Universities Act of 1904, his assault on the elected Calcutta Corporation members, his expedition to Tibet at the expense of Indian revenue, and finally the partition of Bengal in the face of fierce national opposition.
• The educational system in the West raised public consciousness. But as unemployment and poverty have grown as a result of increasing knowledge, people have become more disgruntled, which has fueled the radical nationalism tendency.
• A number of leaders who acknowledged the loss of Indian cultural and national identity that was being absorbed into the colonial pattern developed as a result of the expansion of westernization.
• Many influential figures, like as B.C. Chatterjee, Swami Vivekananda, and Dayanand Saraswati, promoted the positive aspects of Indian culture and heritage in order to refute the idea that the west is superior.
• Events abroad had an effect. Japan and Ethiopia respectively defeated Russia and Italy. The idea of Western supremacy and invincibility was demolished by such events.
An Overview of International Influences
• During this time, a number of global events contributed to the rise of militant nationalism in India.
• The rise of modern Japan after 1868 showed how a backward Asian nation could advance without Western assistance.
• Japanese leaders introduced universal primary education, built an effective, modern government, and transformed their nation into a top economic and military force in just a few decades.
• The idea of European superiority was disproved by the defeat of the Italian army by the Ethiopians in 1896 and the defeat of Russia by Japan in 1905.
• The news of a small Asian nation's victory over one of Europe's most potent military powers brought joy to people all around Asia.
• On June 18, 1905, the Karachi Chronicle published a popular opinion that said, "What one Asian has done, others can do."
• India can defeat England with ease if Japan can easily defeat Russia.
• Let's drive the British into the sea and stand beside Japan among the world's superpowers.
• Indians were persuaded that a unified people prepared to make sacrifices could confront even the strongest tyrannical administrations by revolutionary upheavals in Ireland, Russia, Egypt, Turkey, and China as well as the South African Boer War.
• The most crucial things were patriotism and selflessness.
International Influences: Impact
• The middle of younger generations in India were significantly impacted by current foreign events.
• They hated how inferior Indians were treated in other British possessions, especially in South Africa.
• The Indians learned from the Boer War (1899–1922)
in South Africa that a group of people working together and willing to make sacrifices might overthrow even the most tyrannical rulers.
• The nationalist movements in Turkey, Egypt, Persia, Iran, Ireland, China, and Russia served as inspiration for them.
• The defeat of the Russian and Italian armies greatly boosted Indians' confidence. It demonstrated the fact that even a small Asian nation could outgun the most powerful military force in Europe.
• Such occurrences punctured the British superiority balloon and rekindled Indian aspirations.
The extremists' objective was "Swaraj." This implied either entire autonomy or freedom from British rule at the time, or total Indian control over administration without necessarily being free from British imperial rule. They fiercely disagreed with Britain's imperialist actions in India. They took great pride in their Indian heritage and culture. They looked to the old texts for strength and courage.