Indian Human Space Program (gaganyaan)

Indian Human Space Program (Gaganyaan)

Key Facts:

Manufacturer- Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Indian Space Research Organization, Development research and Development Organization

Country of origin- India 

Operator- ISRO 

Applications- crewed orbital spacecraft

launch weight- 18,100 lb. (8,200 kg) 

Crew members- 3

Power- Photovoltaic array

Regime- Low Earth orbit

Design life-7 days

First (maiden) release- Q4 2022 (uncrewed),

2024 (crewed)


Gaganyaan's preliminary research and technology development began in 2006 under the umbrella name "Orbital Vehicle." The idea was to create a straightforward spacecraft that could accommodate two men, last for about a week in space, and land with a splashdown following re-entry. By March 2008, the design was complete, and the Government of India was asked to fund it. The Indian Human Spaceflight Programme received financing in February 2009, although it was insufficient due to the program's lack of development funding. 
The orbital vehicle's maiden unmanned flight was originally scheduled for 2013, however that date was later changed to 2016. The project's future, however, was said to be seriously in doubt due to financing issues in April 2012, and all Indian crewed spaceflight projects were declared to be "off ISRO's priority list" in August 2013. The project was given another look in early 2014 and became one of the primary beneficiaries of a significant budget increase announced in February 2014. Using the scaled-down 550 kg Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE), which was launched and recovered in January 2007, ISRO is constructing the Gaganyaan orbital vehicle.
The most recent effort to advance the Indian Human Spaceflight Program was made in 2017, and it was publicly accepted and unveiled by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in his 2018 Independence Day speech to the country.
Currently, a crew of three is required. During the Gaganyaan mission, ISRO will conduct two physical scientific and four biology microgravity experiments. Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) is already developing a monopropellant blended formulation consisting of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN), ammonium nitrate, methanol, and water for the Gaganyaan mission, which ISRO plans to replace hydrazine with. 
Gaganyaan will be the subject of five science experiments as of October 2021, according to ISRO:
•    IIT Patna
•    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR)
•    University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (UASD) 
•    Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT)
•    Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR). 
Two of the five experiments—kidney stone formation and the impact of the Sirtuin 1 gene marker in Drosophila melanogaster—will be done by IIST, UASD, and TIFR as a biological experiments. A heat sink that can handle a lot of heat flux will be the subject of tests at IIT Patna, IICT will look into the crystallization process, and JNCASR will analyses fluid mixing properties.

About Gaganyaan:

Indian Human Space Program (Gaganyaan):
Over the years, India's space programme has cleared the ground for the nation to independently develop affordable space infrastructure. The nation has benefited greatly socially and economically from the advancements made in space technology. The seeds planted more than 60 years ago have borne fruit in the shape of cutting edge technological developments in space science, satellites, applications, and rocketry. 
These scientific and technological developments have laid a solid foundation for future efforts to go into deeper space and reach the goal of "human space travel." In the past ten years, the Indian human spaceflight programme has been designed and begun to take shape. The goal was to define the mission, the technological requirements, and the infrastructure needs. ISRO developed the vision and strategy for the human spaceflight programme on the basis of discussions held at various levels throughout the nation.

Project Gaganyaan

The first project the ISRO has undertaken to show off the possibility of human space flight is Gaganyaan.
The Gaganyaan programme plans to launch a crew of three astronauts into LEO (Low Earth Orbit) for a 400 kilometer demonstration of human spaceflight. 
The Human Rated Launch Vehicle, Crew Escape System, and Orbital Module with Human Presence are the three main parts required for this task. 
In addition, the Ground Control station is scheduled to be operational throughout the mission's ascent, on-orbit, and descant phases. 
Prior to the manned trip, two unmanned missions will be carried out in accordance with Gaganyaan's mandate. The primary goal of the Gaganyaan Program is to attain autonomy in access to space while maximizing industry/academic participation and collaboration to enhance national development in both practical and intangible ways. 
There are planned investigations to increase our understanding of the solar system. Additionally, this project will hasten the nation's technological and scientific advancement in order to promote creativity and innovation. 
Gaganyaan is a national programme in which ISRO will work with a number of national agencies:
1.    Indian Armed Forces
2.    DRDO labs
3.    Indian Industries
4.    Top Academic & Research Institutions
5.    CSIR labs, and numerous Industries located all over India
6.    Science payloads from academic institutions that have been shortlisted for the programme will be flown in crew modules.

Opportunities For Research And Experiments In Microgravity

Enhancing the nation's capacity for cutting edge scientific research through human in loop micro-gravity studies is one of Gaganyaan's key goals. 
The first two unmanned Gaganyaan flights announcement of opportunities has already been made, and the experiments for each flight's microgravity have already been shortlisted. The following are some of the areas of microgravity research:
1.    Advanced life support systems
2.    Human-machine interface (HMI) and human factor (HF) studies
3.    Space medicine and bio-astronautics
4.    Studies on habitat and the environment
5.    Nutrition and diet
6.    Studies on human adaptation and rehabilitation 
7.    Studies on the body and mind
8.    Studies on the risks to life in space
9.    Studies on in-situ manufacturing and resource utilization for space 
10.     Innovative Materials 
11.     Energy storage and exploitation, etc.

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