It is possible to classify terrorism in India into 4 categories:
- Militancy of Jammu and Kashmir: After losing the initial battle in 1947 and later the wars of 1965 and 1971, Pakistan resorted to low-intensity warfare tactics as it realised that, in a full-scale direct war, it could not prevail over India. Since the late eighties, it has strongly funded separatists and insurgent rebellions in the Kashmir Valley.
- North-East insurgency: In the whole north-east, there are more than 100 tribal groups. British policies have contributed to their separation from the rest of India. There are currently a number of insurgent outfits with different demands to monitor Bangladesh's illegal immigration, separate statehood, secession.
- Terrorism of the Left Wing (Naxalism): It aims to seize political power to establish the so-called people's government through armed struggle.
REASONS FOR TERRORISM SPREADING:
- Indoctrination: Religious ideology has become a central means of indoctrination and terrorist preparation. To attract and radicalize people through videos and propaganda, extremists use blogs and social media. Suicide, self-sacrifice, or martyrdom was orchestrated and committed by religiously motivated people
- Technology: advanced means of communication: electronic media, print media, social media, and the internet help to promote extremist ideology and hate campaigns across international boundaries more rapidly. In order to provide guidance and information on how to organize and prepare for attacks- blogs and social media posts serve as a "virtual training camp" or forum for ideas. Cell phones, satellite phones and GPS systems are other tools used to commit acts of terror.
- Feelings of alienation and deprivation among local citizens, violation of human rights, oppression of the dignity of life, disconnection from mainstream societies, dissatisfaction with the government.
- Porosity of neighbouring countries' borders-Bangladesh, Myanmar, Bhutan, Nepal. Some of it is due to rough terrain and some of it is due to government bilateral agreements.
- Violation of land ceiling rules, non-regularization of traditional land rights, acquisition and reconstruction of land without sufficient compensation, destruction of old tribal-forest relationships.
- In order to gain easy money, ties between terrorism and organized crime.
- Simple weapons and ammunition availability.
- Development deficit: Unemployed and poor young people with high ambitions are the victims of a trap set by terrorist groups that attract them with short-term profits of money, food, clothing, shelter and ask them to carry out terrorist acts such as suicide car bombing.
LEGAL BASIS FOR HANDLING TERRORISM:
- Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act: Generally referred to as TADA, the anti-terrorism law was in effect in the form of the Punjab insurgency between 1985 and 1995 and extended to the whole of India. It became effective on 23 May 1985. In 1989, 1991 and 1993, it was renewed before being permitted to expire in 1995 due to growing unpopularity following widespread allegations of harassment.
- The Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002 (POTA): The Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002 (POTA) was an Act passed by Parliament in 2002 to improve anti-terrorism operations. The Act was enacted as a result of several terrorist attacks in India , especially in response to the attack on Parliament. The 2001 Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance (POTO) and the Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act have been superseded by the Act. The Act was repealed by the government in 2004. The National Security Act, 1980 and the Illegal Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 are the laws in effect to regulate terrorism in India at present.
- National Security Act, 1980: The National Security Act is a strict law providing for months of preventive detention if the authorities are convinced that an individual is a danger to national security or law and order.
To counter terrorism, a holistic approach is required. It needs commitment from all the government, security forces, civil society and media stakeholders.
- Political: There should be a supreme national interest. It should be above and above the politics of the ballot bank. Political parties should come together and make a request for all ways of fighting terrorism.
- Legal: We need to have a very strict anti-terrorism laws and quick-track courts that can offer judgement within 3-4 months.
- Police: Improve the state police by upgrading their training capacities and by providing them with modern surveillance, investigation and operating facilities.
- Media: The media often engage in excessive discussions on matters of concern from a national security point of view. In a democracy, discussion is always welcome, but the media should take a more dispassionate stance on certain topics.
- Public: It is important to inform the general public about the evil plans of our neighbouring countries. Interreligious unity and working together for peace should be supported by both the majority and minority groups.
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