The Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company engaged in combat during the Second Anglo-Mysore War, which took place between 1780 and 1784. Anglo-Mysorean hostilities in India were sparked by the conflict in the American Revolutionary War between Britain, the French, and the Dutch. At the time, Mysore was an important French ally in India.
Background of The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780–184)
• When the Marathas invaded Haidar Ali in 1771 and the English did not defend him, he accused them of breaking their word and disregarding the Treaty of Madras.
• Additionally, he found that the French were much more helpful than the English in providing his forces with lead, saltpeter, and guns.
• As a result, Mahe, a French colony on the Malabar Coast, served as a conduit for the delivery of some French military equipment to Mysore. The French joined the rebels in their fight against the English during the American Revolutionary War, which had already broken out.
• Haidar Ali's affection for France further frightened the English under these circumstances.
• As a result, they made an attempt to capture Mahe, whom Haidar believed to be in his care.
• Haidar perceived the English attempt to annex Mahe as a direct threat to his authority.
• Haidar organized a confederacy against the British that included the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad in addition to the French.
Course of The War
• Haidar forged an anti-English coalition with the Marathas and the Nizam.
• Invading the Carnatic in 1781, he captured Arcot and routed Colonel Baillie's English forces.
• The English (under Sir Eyre Coote) removed the Marathas and the Nizam from Haidar's side in the meantime, but the unaffected Haidar faced the English head-on and was ultimately beaten at Porto Novo in November 1781.
• However, he reorganized his troops and defeated the English, taking Braithwaite as their captain prisoner.
• Cancer claimed Haidar Ali's life on December 7, 1782.
• For a year, Tipu Sultan, his son, carried on the struggle unsuccessfully.
• During this time, company representatives were given orders to stop the fighting from the company's London headquarters and start talking to Tipu.
• When a preliminary cease-fire was declared, Colonel Fullarton was told to hand over every victory he had just achieved.
• At contrast, Fullarton remained at Palghatcherry because of rumors that Tipu had violated the terms of the cease-fire at Mangalore.
• On January 30, Tipu Sultan received the garrison of Mangalore.
• After a struggle that had no clear winner, both sides sought peace, leading to the signing of the Treaty of Mangalore in March 1784, which required each side to return the area it had taken from the other.
• It was the second of four Anglo-Mysore Wars, and as a result, the British came to rule the majority of southern India.
• Due to the terms of the Treaty of Mangalore, the British were prevented from intervening in the 1785 conflict between Mysore and its neighbors, the Maratha Empire and the Nizam of Hyderabad.
The Mangalore Treaty
• The Treaty of Mangalore was inked on March 11, 1784, by Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company. The peace treaty that was signed at Mangalore marked the end of the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
• The Treaty of Mangalore was widely viewed in Britain as the British East India Company's demise.
• The British East India Company suffered as a result, and the business started to fail.
• Because business generated a sixth of the nation's overall income, the British government was quite concerned about this.
• It was decided to pass what is now known as Pitt's India Act in order to remedy the problems.
• In order to prevent a repeat of the Treaty of Mangalore, this legislation addressed the problem of corruption and granted the Governor-General the power to act in the interests of the King and the nation.
Tipu Sultan (1750–1799)
• Tipu Sultan, often known as the Tiger of Mysore, was Haidar Ali's son and a great fighter. His birthdate was November 1750.
• He had a good education and was fluent in Kanarese, Arabic, Persian, and Urdu.
• Like his father Haider Ali, Tipu placed a high priority on the creation and maintenance of a strong military.
• He led his army according to a European-style organization using Persian words of command.
• However, he never allowed them (the French) to develop as a pressure group, even though he enlisted the help of French officers to instruct his troops.
• Tipu was aware of the importance of a naval force.
• In 1796, he founded the Board of Admiralty, and his plans were for a fleet of 20 large frigates and 22 battleships.
• He built three dockyards in Molidabad, Wajedabad, and Mangalore. However, none of his plans were realized.
• In addition to being a patron of science and technology, he is known as India's "pioneer of rocket technology."
• He wrote a manual for the military outlining how rockets function.
• He was also a pioneer in introducing sericulture to the Mysore state.
• Tipu, a fervent advocate of democracy and a shrewd negotiator, assisted the French soldiers in Seringapatam in 1797 in founding a Jacobin Club.
The Mysore army was expertly led by Hyder and his son Tipu during this drawn-out fight. The aged Sir Eyre Coote had lost his vitality. The Mysore army was not only well-trained and equipped, but also skilfully led by Hyder and his son Tipu. After Hyder unexpectedly passed away in 1782, the outcome of the war was still in question, and on June 28, 1784, Tipu and Hyder agreed to a peace agreement based on equal restitution of all gains. This accord is referred to as the "Treaty of Mangalore".