Provincial Kingdoms Of Eastern India

Provincial Kingdoms of Eastern India

INTRODUCTION

During the medieval era, Eastern India was ruled by three principal provincial rulers. These are the Gajapati, Ilyas Shah, and Jaunpur dynasties. Malik Sarwar established the Jaunpur dynasty, which ruled over Jaunpur from 1394 to 1505 CE. Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah established Bengal's first independent dynasty, the Ilyas Shah dynasty, which ruled for 200 years, from 1338 to 1538 CE. Kapilendra Deva established the Gajapati dynasty in 1434, and it ruled over parts of Odisha from that time until 1541 CE. 
 

JAUNPUR DYNASTY 

•    Malik Sarwar (Sultanu Sharq), the governor of Jaunpur, declared independence in 1394 CE as a result of the Delhi Sultanate's growing weakness and Timur's conquest of Delhi.
 
•    In addition to Awadh, he was in charge of a sizable chunk of the Ganga Yamuna doab, which included the states of Tirhut, Bihar, Kannauj, Dalmau, Kara, and Sandeela.
 
•    He laid the foundation for the Sharqi dynasty. This is the period when the Sharqi architectural style first became recognised.
 
•    The Atala Masjid, Jama Masjid, and Lal Darwaja Masjid all display Sharqi architectural elements.
 

MALIK SARWAR (1394 TO 1399 CE)

•    The Jaunpur Dynasty was founded by Malik Sarwar.
 
•    Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah II Tughluq (1394–1413 CE) appointed him as the administrator of Jaunpur and gave him the title "Malik-us-Sharq".
 
•    He immediately proclaimed himself to be a sovereign and assumed the name "Atabak-i-Azam."
 
•    Jaunpur was embroiled in a century-long conflict with the Ujjainiyas of Bhojpur in present-day Bihar during Malik Sarwar's rule.
 
•    On the ruins of Yagi Mandal, one of Raja Vijaya Chandra's structures, he erected a royal house that he called Badi Manzil (The Wonderful House).
 
•    Malik Sarwar passed away in November 1399. 
 

MUBARAK SHAH (1399–1402 CE) 

•    He ruled for about five years and six months.
 
•    During his lifetime, Malik Sarwar gave Mubarak Shah the title of Malik-ush Sharq and appointed him to oversee the operations of the central administration.
 
•    As soon as Mallu Iqbal was informed of Malik Sarwar's passing and Mubarak Shah's ascension to power, he swarmed Jaunpur.
 
•    After marching to Qannauj, Mallu Iqbal set up camp along the banks of the Ganges.
 
•    On the other hand, Sultan Mubarak Sharqi marched to the other side of Mallu Iqbal's camp with a sizable force of Rajputs, Afghans, Mughals, and Tajiks.
 
•    They eventually retreated without using any force to their own capital cities.
 
•    Although no coins bearing his name have been found so far, he is supposed to have produced them.
 
Provincial Kingdoms of Eastern India - Medieval India

IBRAHIM SHAH LIVED (1402 TO 1440 CE)

•    His younger brother Shams-ud-din Ibrahim Shah succeeded him (1402-1440 CE).
 
•    He was the greatest emperor of the Sharqi dynasty, and it was under his leadership that Jaunpur developed into a significant academic hub.
 
•    He promoted Islamic education, and it was under his rule that Jaunpur's renowned Atala Masjid was constructed.
 
•    Sultan Ibrahim was able to increase the economic and tax resources of his realm by consolidating and expanding its borders.
 
•    At Kara, a sizable music and dance library was built.
 
•    At Kara, Sultan Ibrahim Shah himself presided over a conference on music.
 
•    Artists and musicians gathered from all over India.
 
•    They worked together to create the massive musical work Sangitasiromani.
 

MAHMUD SHAH (1440 TO 1457 CE)

•    In 1440, Mahmud Shah, Ibrahim Shah's son, ascended to the throne.
 
•    In 1452 CE, he attempted to take over Delhi, but Bahlol Lodhi beat him. Later, he marched towards Etawah and made another effort to capture Delhi.
 
•    Finally, he acknowledged Bahlul Lodi's control over Shamsabad by signing a peace pact. This peace accord, however, did not last very long.
 
•    Due to his illness, Mahmud Shah passed away, and his son Bhikhan succeeded him as ruler.
 
•    His hometown, Jaunpur, was also endowed with magnificent mosques during this time, the most noteworthy of which was the Lal Darwazah Masjid (Ruby Gate Mosque), and built in 1450 CE.
 
•    At the same time, his favored queen, Bibi Raji, had her opulent home constructed next to it.
 

MUHAMMAD SHAH (1457–1458 CE)

•    Muhammad Shah Sharqi, the eldest son of Sultan Mahmud Sharqi, was sometimes referred to as Bhikan Khan.
 
•    As his top goal, Sultan Muhammad Shah chose to reach an agreement with Delhi Sultan Bahlol Lodi.
 
•    Muhammad's succession was unquestionable, but Hasan Khan, Jalal Khan, and Qutb Khan, as well as a number of his nobles, were turned off by his autocratic nature.
 
•    Muhammad Sharqi in Qannauj will be overthrown by Hussain Khan, a few Sharqi amirs, and Bibi Raji.
 
•    Sultan Muhammad was killed by an arrow shot by Mubarak Gung, a devoted noble of Hussain Khan, during a battle with Hussain Khan.
 
•    In Dalmau, he was interred close to Rae Bareli.
 

HUSSAIN SHAH SHARQI (1458–1505 CE) 

•    Sultan Mahmud Shah Sharqi's son Hussain Shah Sharqi inherited a sizable domain.
 
•    Since Bahlul Lodhi, the ruler of Delhi, owned properties that should have belonged to his wife, he viewed him as a competition.
 
•    In addition to subduing the king of Orissa, he also took control of Gwalior's fortified stronghold.
 
•    Etawah, a key town on the Yamuna River and a source of friction between the Sharqis and the Lodhis, was subdued by him.
 
•    Both as a musician and a music innovator, Hussain Shah excelled.
 
•    He created the raga Zunglah, which combines native and Perso-Arab scales and looks to be a hybrid raga.
 
•    Due to the growth of music, Jaunpur acquired the distinction of being the Shiraz of India.
 

ARTS AND ARCHITECTURE  

•    The Sharqi kings of Jaunpur were renowned for their encouragement of education and construction.
 
•    The Atala Masjid, Lal Darwaza Masjid, and Jama Masjid are the three most notable examples of Sharqi architecture in Jaunpur.
 
•    The Atala Masjid was started in 1376 by Firuz Shah Tughluq, but Ibrahim Shah finished it in 1408.
 
•    Ibrahim Shah built the Jhanjhari Masjid, another mosque, around 1430.
 
•    Mahmud Shah, the next king, oversaw the construction of the Lal Darwaja Masjid (1450).
 
•    In 1470, Hussain Shah oversaw the construction of the Jama Masjid.
 

ILYAS SHAH DYNASTY  

•    The first independent Bengali dynasty to create a Sunni Muslim Sultanate in Bengal was the Ilyas Shah dynasty.
 
•    Despite interruptions from their slaves and the House of Ganesha, their power lasted for more than 200 years.
 
•    Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah initially worked as the Satgaon governor under Izz al-Din Yahya.
 
•    Ilyas Shah took over Satgaon after Yahya died in 1338 and proclaimed himself the independent Sultan of Delhi.
 
•    They kept cordial ties with China, which facilitated trade between Bengal and other countries.
 

HAJI SHAMSUDDIN ILYAS KHAN (1342–1357 CE) 

•    The Ilyas Shah dynasty of the Bengal Sultanate was established by Haji Ilyas, often referred to as Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah.
 
•    Sistan-born Sunni Muslim Ilyas Shah advanced through the Delhi Sultanate's ranks.
 
•    He is regarded as the Alexander the Great or Napoleon of Bengal. Pandua became the capital of Bengal, which he transformed into a stand-alone sultanate.
 
•    He gave the inhabitants of this combined land the name Bangali and the name Bangalah.
 
•    He oversaw the Muslim army's first incursion into Nepal while serving as Satgaon's sultan.
 
•    He also launched a successful battle against the Kamarupa kingdom in present-day Assam, becoming the first Muslim king to take control of Guwahati.
 
•    In November 1353, Ilyas Shah defended Bengal from Sultan Firuz Shah Tughluq's invasion of the Delhi Sultanate.
 

GHIYASUDDIN AZAM (1390 TO 1411 CE)

•    In 1390, Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah took over the throne in his father's absence.
 
•    He was the Ilyas Shah dynasty's most notable sultan.
 
•    He encouraged Bengali and Persianate culture and established an independent judiciary.
 
•    Additionally, he had cordial ties with China, which facilitated Bengal's international trade.
 
•    He sent representatives to the Hejaz and donated money to build madrasas in Mecca and Medina.
 
•    He also made a big contribution to Bengali literature, since Shah Muhammad Sagir wrote the well-known book Yusuf-Zulekha with his encouragement.
 

ALAUDDIN HUSAIN SHAH (1494-1519 CE) 

•    During the rule of Alauddin Husain Shah, the Sultanate of Bengal saw extensive territorial growth.
 
•    He was successful in defending his western frontier against the Lodi invasion and giving Jaunpur's ousted Sharqi ruler sanctuary.
 
•    He oversaw several operations against Kamarupa. The Bengali kingdom acquired Kamarupa and Kamta after the Khen dynasty of Kamarupa was overthrown.
 
•    Near the conclusion of Husain Shah's rule, a Portuguese mission arrived in Bengal to establish diplomatic ties.
 
•    A Husain Shah officer named Yashoraj Khan wrote several Vaishnava padas, and in one of them, he praised his king.
 

NASIRUDDIN NASRAT SHAH (1518–1533) 

•    After the death of his father Alauddin Husain Shah in 1519, Nasrat succeeded to the throne as Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah.
 
•    Nusrat established his headquarters in Hajipur, near the junction of the Gandak and the Ganges, and he expanded his dominion into Tirhut (northern Bihar).
 
•    The Battle of Ghaghra, which took place in 1529, was a frontal confrontation with the Mughals.
 
•    The Mughal Empire was victorious, and although they did not conquer Bengal, their realm reached as far as the eastern bank of the Ghaghara in Bihar.
 
•    Near the end of 1521, two Portuguese missions arrived at Nusrat's court to establish diplomatic ties with Bengal.
 
•    Portuguese envoy Goncalo Tavares had been successful in getting Portuguese traders a duty-free trading arrangement in Bengal.
 

GHIYASUDDIN MAHMUD SHAH (1533 TO 1538 CE)

•    Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah took the throne in 1533 AD and ruled for five years after executing his nephew Sultan Alauddin Firuz.
 
•    Mahmud Shah sent Ibrahim Khan and an army of infantry, cavalry, and artillery to seize Bihar in the year 1534 AD.
 
•    Sher Shah Suri, however, ultimately defeated and killed Ibrahim Khan.
 
•    The arrival of the Portuguese on the coast of Bengal exacerbated Mahmud Shah's problems.
 
•    With the Muslim governor and traders, they misbehaved. Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah thereupon gave the order to seize them.
 
•    Sher Shah Suri's aggressive intentions, which had been heightened by his victory at Surajgarh, pushed Mahmud to alter his plan of action.
 
•    He released the Portuguese prisoners and even employed a Portuguese military expert in an effort to win their allegiance.
 

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN DURING THE ILYAS SHAH DYNASTY

•    Shah Muhammad Sagir wrote his well-known work, Yusuf-Zulekha, under Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah's patronage, who made a substantial contribution to Bengali literature.
 
•    The Bengali version of the Ramayana, known as Krittivasi Ramayan, was translated during his rule by the Hindu poet Krittibas Ojha.
 
•    Additionally, he constructed two Madrasas, one near the Umme-Hani gate in Makka and the other close to the Gate of Peace (Bab-al-Salam) in Madina, for the purpose of disseminating Islamic knowledge.
 
•    Several Vaishnava padas were written by Yashoraj Khan, an officer under Alauddin Husain Shah.
 
•    The Baro Shona Masjid in Gour, West Bengal, was completed by Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah in 1526 AD.
 

DYNASTY OF GAJAPATI

•    From 1434 to 1541 CE, the Trikalinga region of the Indian subcontinent which includes most of the present-day states of Odisha and Northern Coastal Andhra was the birthplace of the medieval Hindu dynasty known as the Gajapati.
 
•    In 1434, Kapilendra Deva established this dynasty. The Gajapatis stretched their dominion under Kapilendra Deva, from the lower Ganga in the north to the Kaveri in the south.
 
•    They supported the arts and literature while also constructing a large number of Lord Vishnu temples.
 

KAPILENDRA DEVA (1435 TO 1466 CE)

•    The founder of the Gajapati dynasty, which ruled from 1435 until 1466 AD, was Kapilendra Deva.
 
•    The Gajapati Empire peaked in 1464 CE under Kapilendra Deva.
 
•    Kapilendra became ill due to the internal strife between his two sons, Hamvira and Purusottama, as well as the territorial loss, and he most likely passed away between 1466 and 1467 A.D.
 
•    Vaishnavist Kapilendra Deva contributed to the expansion of the Jagannath temple at Puri.
 
•    He also commanded the restoration of waste and pasture grounds, as well as the repeal of the Chaukidari levy, which the Brahmins had previously paid.
 
•    Instructing them to adhere to the path of justice, righteousness, and spiritual precepts, he also forewarned his administrators that failure to do so would result in banishment.
 
Provincial Kingdoms of Eastern India - Medieval India

PURUSHOTTAMA DEVA (1466–1497 CE) 

•    The second Suryavamsa Gajapati king was Purushottam Deva.
 
•    He was chosen by his father Gajapati Kapilendra Deva Routaraya to succeed him as king of the Odishan Empire.
 
•    His older brother Hamvira Deva was disappointed by this decision since he wanted to work with the Gajapati's rival, Bahamani Sultan Muhammad Shah III.
 
•    After seizing control of more than half of Purushottama Deva's realm with the aid of Muhammad Shah, including Rajamundry and Kondapalli, Hamvira Deva proclaimed himself Gajapati in 1472.
 
•    Later, Purrushotama Deva launched an offensive from the north, routing his older brother Hamvira, driving out the Bahamani garrisons, and seizing Kondapalli and Rajamundry for his own.
 
•    Under Purushottama Deva's rule, poetry saw a boom; he wrote a number of Sanskrit-language poems.
 
•    Abhinava, Nama Gitagovinda, Gopalapuja Venisamhara, Bhakti Bishnu, and Trikanda Kosha are a few of his solo compositions.
 

PRATAPARUDRA DEVA (1497 UNTIL 1540 CE)

•    Prataprudra Deva took over for his father Purushottama Deva in 1497.
 
•    Over the ensuing years, Prataparudra and the ruler of Vijayanagar fought a protracted battle.
 
•    In the year 1515, Krishna Deva Raya stormed Kondavidu in the Guntur region.
 
•    Prataparudra was compelled to sign a peace agreement, as a result of which he offered his daughter Jaganmohini Devi to the Vijayanagar king as a bride, and in exchange, renounced all claims to the regions south of the Krishna River.
 
•    The protector of the Sanskrit language was Prataparudra Deva. He is referred to as the master of all arts and the keeper of 64 different sorts of knowledge in the Undavaill inscription.
 
•    Due to the enduring works of Odia literature by the Panchsakhas, namely Balarama Dasa, Jagannatha Dasa, Ananta Dasa, Achyutananda Dasa, and Jasobanta Dasa, under the reign of Prataparudra Deva, Odia literature achieved a better prestige.
 

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN DURING THE GAJAPATI DYNASTY

•    Kapilendra Deva erected a Kapileswar Shaivite temple in Bhubaneswar.
 
•    In the Balasore district at this period, a shrine was constructed close to the Raibania fort.
 
•    Purushottama erected two battle-ready granite stone statues of Lord Jagannath and Balarama as siblings in the shrine.
 
•    Currently, the Jagannath Temple grounds in Puri are home to the idols of Uchistha or Kamada Ganesha and Gopala that Purushottama Deva brought as a symbol of triumph against Kanchi.
 
•    Chandrasekhara's temple on Kapilasa Hill in the Dhenkanal district and Goddess Biraja's temple in the Jajpur district were both renovated by Prataparudra Deva.
 
•    Both a Dhavalesvara temple and a Sarpeswar temple have been built in the villages of Balarampur and Kakhadi, respectively, in the Cuttack district of Mancheswar.
 
•    Prataparudra constructed the audience hall for the Jagannath temple at Puri.
 

CONCLUSION

The kingdom of Jaunpur, which had emerged from the ashes of the Delhi Sultanate as an autonomous entity, was reintegrated into the Sultanate in 1505 CE after a golden era of seventy-five years. The independent Sultanate of Bengal came to an end under the Ilyas Shah dynasty in Bengal in 1538 AD, and the Gajapati dynasty in Odisha collapsed in 1541 AD.

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