Prithvirja III, also known as Prithviraj Chauhan or Rai Pithora, was a Chahamana (Chauhan) dynasty king from India. After his father was killed in a battle, he ascended to the throne of Ajmer at the age of thirteen in 1179. The ruler of Delhi, Prithviraj Chauhan's grandfather Angam, declared Prithviraj Chauhan as the heir to the throne of Delhi after him. In the famous Battles of Tarain I and II, he fought Afghan ruler Mohammed Ghori (1191 and 1192).
In the famous Battles of Tarain I and II, he fought Afghan ruler Mohammed Ghori (1191 and 1192).
• Prithviraj Chauhan was born in 1166, the son of Ajmer's king, Someshwar Chauhan. He was the last of the Chauhan dynasty's rulers to sit on Delhi's throne.
• From a young age, Prithvi Raj demonstrated his sharpness and brilliance by mastering all military skills.
• He was known for mastering the "Shabdbhedi" technique, which involved aiming a target based on its sound.
• Because Prithviraj was still a minor when he took the throne, his mother, Karpuradevi, was appointed as his regent.
• During Prithviraj's early years as king, Karpuradevi oversaw the administration of the kingdom with the help of a regency council.
• In 1182 A.D., Prithviraj's historical wars and victories over Chandela kings were instrumental in bringing in vast sums of money for his treasury. However, the Chandella king quickly reclaimed his kingdom from Prithvi Raj.
• At its height, Prithviraj Chauhan's empire stretched from the Himalayan foothills in the north to the foothills of Mount Abu in the south.
• The empire stretched from the Betwa to the Sutlej rivers. His empire included what is now Rajasthan, western Uttar Pradesh, northern Madhya Pradesh, and southern Punjab in modern times.
• Prithviraj had a dedicated ministry for pandits (scholars) and poets, which was under the charge of Padmanabha.
• He had a number of poets and scholars in his court, including:
Jayanaka, a poet-historian who wrote PrithvirajaVijaya
Vishvarupa, a poet
Prithvibhata, a royal bard (identified as Chand Bardai by some scholars)
CONFLICTS AND BATTLES
• Prithviraj's first military victory was the suppression of a revolt led by his cousin Nagarjuna and the recapture of Gudapura.
• Nagarjuna was Prithviraj's uncle Vigraharaja IV's son, and the Chahamana throne struggle had sparked a feud between the two branches of the family.
• The Bhadanakas were a persistent threat to the Chauhan-held region around Delhi, but they were so thoroughly destroyed before 1182 that they are no longer mentioned in historical records.
• In 1182, Parmardin Deva Chandela, the ruler of Jejakbhukti, was defeated by Prithviraja. Prithviraja's reputation was enhanced by his campaign against the Chandelas, but it also increased the number of his enemies.
• It brought the Chandelas and Gahadavalas (another northern Indian ruling family) together, forcing Prithviraj to increase military spending and vigilance along his southeastern border.
• He clashed with Jayachandra, the Gahadavala ruler of Kannauj, as a result of his aggressive campaigns. Jayachandra was eager to put a stop to Prithviraja's growing ambitions and desire to expand his territory.
• However, according to legend, a romance between Prithviraja and Jayachandra's daughter, Sanyogita, was the immediate cause of their intense and bitter rivalry.
• Chand Bardai's epic PrithvirajRaso immortalises Prithviraja and Sanyogita's love and the princess's eventual abduction (with her consent) (or Chand Raisa).
• Sanyogita chose to marry a statue of Prithviraj over other kings during her swayamvar, according to Chand Raisa.
GHURIDS OF AFGHANISTAN
• By the 12th century, Muslim dynasties had conquered the northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent, and Prithviraj's forefathers had been subjected to multiple raids.
• The Ghurid dynasty, based in Ghazna, controlled the territory to the west of the Chahamana kingdom by the late 12th century. The Ghurid ruler Muhammad of Ghor crossed the Indus River and captured Multan while Prithviraj was still a child, in 1175 CE.
• He invaded Gujarat, which was ruled by the Chaulukyas (Solankis), in 1178 CE. The Ghurid army appears to have passed through the western border of the Chahamana kingdom on its way to Gujarat, as evidenced by the destruction of several temples and the sacking of Bhati-ruled Lodhruva.
• The Ghurid army besieged the Naddula (Nadol) fort, which was controlled by the Chahamanas of Naddula, on its way to Gujarat.
• Prithviraj's chief minister, Kadambavasa, advised him to avoid assisting the Ghurids' rivals and to stay out of the conflict.
• The Chahamanas were spared a Ghurid invasion because the Gujarati Chaulukyas defeated Muhammad at the Battle of Kasahrada in 1178 CE, forcing the Ghurids to flee.
FIRST BATTLE OF TARAIN (1191)
• Muhammad of Ghor invaded the Chahamana territory and captured Tabarhindah between 1190 and 1191 CE (identified with Bathinda).
• He entrusted it to Zia-ud-din, the Qazi of Tulak, who was backed up by 1200 horsemen.
• When Prithviraj learned of this, he marched with his feudatories, including Delhi's Govindaraja, to Tabarhindah.
• The Ghurids were decisively defeated by Prithviraj's army. Muhammad of Ghor was wounded and had to flee.
• Prithviraj did not pursue the retreating Ghurid army because he did not want to invade hostile territory or misjudge Ghori's ambition.
SECOND BATTLE OF TARAIN (1192)
• The first battle of Tarain appears to have been treated by Prithviraj as merely a frontier battle.
• As a result of his wars against the neighbouring Hindu kings, Prithviraj had lost all allies.
• Muhammad Ghori arrived with a larger force, and Prithviraj was defeated and captured by Ghori.
• Muhammad of Ghor reinstated Prithviraj Chauhan as a Ghurid vassal after capturing him. This theory is supported by the fact that after the Battle of Tarain, Prithviraj issued coins with his own name on one side and Muhammad's name on the other.
• Prithviraj Chauhan's death is quietly debated and controversial, with one theory claiming he killed Ghori before dying, and another claiming he was killed for treason by Ghori.