Madan Mohan Malaviya

Madan Mohan Malaviya

Malaviya is best known for founding the Banaras Hindu University and for becoming a torchbearer of the freedom struggle, serving as a link between the Congress's moderates and extremists.
The famous Indian educationist and freedom warrior Madan Mohan Malaviya, better known as 'Mahamana,' was born on December 25, 1861.


Madan Mohan Malaviya
•    Malaviya, who was born in Allahabad, had his early education through the 'pathshala' system and was fluent in Sanskrit. He graduated from Muir Central College (now Allahabad University) in 1879 and went to work as a teacher at a nearby high school.
•    Malaviya was drawn to politics and joined the Indian National Congress in Calcutta in 1886, a year after it was founded at Mumbai's Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College.
•    Malaviya progressed through the ranks to become president four times: in 1909 in Lahore, 1918 in Delhi, 1930 in Delhi, and 1932 in Delhi (Calcutta). Malaviya served in Congress for nearly 50 years.
•    Malaviya was a founding member of the Hindu Mahasabha, which he helped create in 1906. He was a successful lawmaker and social reformer who served in the Imperial Legislative Council for 11 years (1909–20).
•    From 1919 to 1938, he served as Vice-Chancellor of the Banaras Hindu University (BHU), which he founded in 1916.
•    He was a scholar and thinker who worked to ensure that our citizens had access to education.
•    Malaviya advocated for free and compulsory basic education, opposed the British Empire's indentured labour system, and backed railway nationalisation.
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•    Malaviya stood in the middle of the liberation struggle, between the Liberals and the Nationalists, the Moderates and the Extremists, as Gokhale and Tilak's adherents were dubbed.
•    When Mahatma Gandhi initiated the Salt Satyagraha and the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930, he joined in and risked being arrested.
•    He is well known for his involvement in abolishing the indenture system in India, particularly in the Caribbean.
•    Following the abolition of slavery in 1833, indentured labour was established as a system of bonded labour.
•    Indentured labour was used in British colonies in the West Indies, Africa, and Southeast Asia to work on sugar, cotton, and tea plantations, as well as train building projects.
•    He founded the Ganga Mahasabha in 1905, fearful that the British would entirely dam the Ganga's flow at Bhimgoda in Haridwar.
•    He was a successful lawmaker and social reformer who served in the Imperial Legislative Council for 11 years (1909–20).
•    He coined the phrase "Satyamev Jayate." The phrase, however, originates in the Mundaka Upanishad. The phrase has now become India's national motto.
•    Because of Malviya's efforts with the British administration, Devnagri was incorporated into British-Indian courts.
Madan Mohan Malaviya
•    He put up a lot of effort to bring Hindus and Muslims together. He is credited with giving well-known remarks on communal peace.
•    For expressing his opinions on caste prejudice and Brahmanical patriarchy, he was exiled from the Brahmin society.
•    He began a Hindi weekly, Abhyudaya, in 1907 and turned it into a daily in 1915, as well as a Hindi monthly, Maryada, in 1910.
•    In 1909, he founded the Leader, an English daily newspaper.
•    Malaviya was the editor of the Hindustan and the Indian Union, two Hindi weekly newspapers.
•    He was also the Hindustan Times' Chairman of the Board of Directors for many years.
•    At the age of 84, he died on November 12th, 1946.
•    He was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour, in 2014.
•    In his honour, the Indian Railways launched the Varanasi-New Delhi Mahamana Express in 2016.

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