Administration Of The Chera Dynasty: Medieval India

Administration of The Chera Dynasty: Medieval India


There were two distinct phases to the Chera dynasty. The Later Chera (also known as the Kulasekharas) governed between the 8th and 12th centuries AD, whereas the Early Chera ruled from the 4th century BC to the 5th century AD. The 'king's council' and the other 'five assemblies' make up Cheras' executive branch. They participated actively in international trade and had a sophisticated port infrastructure. 
Administration of The Chera Dynasty

History of Cheras

•    One of the most important dynasties of the Sangam period in Tamil Nadu and the modern-day state of Kerala was the Chera dynasty.
•    Along with the Cholas of Uraiyur and the Pandyas of Madurai, the early Cheras were considered one of the three primary powers of ancient Tamilakam in the early decades of the Common Era.
•    Their kingdom was situated to the north and west of the Pandya kingdom, and they were also known as "Keraputras."
•    The Cholas and the Pandyas have been the Cheras' continuous enemies throughout their history.
•    According to Tamil scriptures, Uthiyan Cheralathan is regarded as the Chera line's first recorded king.
•    His capital was Kuzhumur in the Keralan district of Kuttanad.
•    The Kulasekhara dynasty, which eventually developed into the later Chera kingdom, was founded by Kulasekhara Alwar, the first ruler of that state.
•    A Chera king had been extinct for more than five centuries when Kulasekhara Alwar, who claimed to be a Chera ancestor, suddenly arrived.
•    He most likely ruled from Tiruvanchikkulam in the modern state of Kerala around 800 A.D. for a period of more than 20 years.
•    The throne was then held by Ramavarma, also known as Kulasekhara Koyiladhikarikal, Kulasekhara Perumal, or Ramar Tiruvati.
•    Political unrest and instability characterised his administration.
•    He served as the Later Chera dynasty's final emperor.

Cheras Administration

•    The monarchy was the most significant political institution in the Chera kingdom. Much pomp and ceremony was associated with the king's personality.
•    The royal Queen also maintained a very prestigious position and sat next to the monarch at all religious occasions.
•    The 'king's council' and the other 'five assemblies' are mentioned in the Shilappadikaram as parts of the Chera Dynasty's government.
•    The most influential nobles, including area rajas like the "ruler of Alumbil," make up the Chera king's council.
Administration of The Chera Dynasty
•    When the Chera monarch assembled his daily durbar to hear petitions and pass judgement, the council served as both the highest consultative body and the last judicial tribunal.
•    Although the five assemblies' role in the ancient Chera kingdom is not entirely clear, it is likely that they were organized geographically.
•    The Chera kingdom was divided into four sections, with Cannanore in the north and Trivandrum in the south.
•    The strong dewans who, until the twentieth century, presided over the realms of Travancore and Cochin on behalf of the local rulers were comparable to the Chief Minister in the Chera dynasty.
•    Policy decisions were heavily influenced by the top priest, who also acted as the Nair war goddess and chief astrologer.
•    The "Manram," which operated in each hamlet across the Chera kingdom, was a further significant institution.
•    Village elders regularly hosted their meetings under a banyan tree, and it helped to settle neighborhood disputes.
•    The Manrams were also used as meeting places for the village.
•    The discovery of teak from Kerala in structures constructed in the Babylonian era, circa 600 B.C., provides proof of early trade between the Malabar Coast and the Middle East.
•    Malayalis were involved in international trade from the beginning, and during the Ptolemaic era, many of the traders that Alexandrian shipmasters encountered at the ports of Arabia were from India.
•    The ancient Chera state featured a complex executive organization in addition to governing committees that made decisions about royal policy and the law.


An administrative system based on monarchy existed during the Chera Dynasty. The monarch, sometimes known as the king, held absolute power. Although the king was authoritarian, a council of ministers and intellectuals limited his power. The King held a daily durbar to hear the grievances of the common people and immediately address them. Manrams, where village elders gathered to discuss all significant issues, is a key aspect of the Cheras administration.

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