Structure Of The Atmosphere

Structure of the Atmosphere

The atmosphere consists of different layers with varying density and temperature.
  • Density is highest near the surface of the earth and decreases with increasing altitude.
  • The column of the atmosphere is divided into five different layers depending upon the temperature condition. They are troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, ionosphere, and exosphere.
  • The troposphere is the lowermost layer of the atmosphere.
  • Its average height is 13 km and extends roughly to a height of 8 km near the poles and about 18 km at the equator. The thickness of the troposphere is greatest at the equator because heat is transported to great heights by strong convectional currents.
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  • The stratosphere is found above the tropopause and extends up to a height of 50 km.
  • One important feature of the stratosphere is that it contains the ozone layer.

Structure Of The Atmosphere
  • The mesosphere lies above the stratosphere, which extends up to a height of 80 km.
  • In this layer, once again, the temperature starts decreasing with the increase in altitude and reaches up to minus 100°C at the height of 80 km.
  • The upper limit of the mesosphere is known as the mesopause.
  • The ionosphere is located between 80 and 400 km above the mesopause.
  • It contains electrically charged particles known as ions, and hence, it is known as the ionosphere.
  • The uppermost layer of the atmosphere above the ionosphere is known as the Exosphere.

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