Dalbergia sissoo, also known as North Indian rosewood or shisham, is a deciduous rosewood tree native to the Indian subcontinent and southern Iran. D. sissoo is a crooked, large tree with long, leathery leaves and pink or whitish flowers.
MORE ABOUT SHISHAM TREE
Dalbergia sissoo is best known as a premium rosewood species on the international stage. Sissoo, on the other hand, is an important fuelwood, shade, shelter, and fodder tree. This species deserves more attention for agroforestry applications because of its multiple products, tolerance of light frosts, and long dry seasons.
Sheesham wood comes from a tree known by a variety of names, including Indian rosewood, Dalbergia Sissoo, Penny leaf, and so on. It can be found growing wild in India and the sub-Himalayan region. The most peculiar feature of this wood is that no two pieces are ever alike in appearance. So you no longer have to wonder what Sheesham wood is. Did you know that Sheesham and teak furniture are the most popular types of wood? The wood of the Sheesham tree is both durable and pliable, making it an excellent choice for creating long-lasting furniture in any style. Sheesham wood beds, in fact, last longer than beds made of other woods.
Sheesham is also classified as a hardwood, which is an interesting feature. The term "hardwood" refers to wood that comes from dicot trees. Tropical forests are home to many of these trees. Hardwood trees grow at a slower rate and are much larger in size than softwood trees. Because of the lignin lining in their xylem vessels, hardwood trees are much stronger than softwood trees. Hardwood trees are not only strong, but they are also long-lasting. Hardwood trees have additional characteristics such as fire resistance, resistance to splitting, and so on. Hardwoods such as sheesham are a great example.
It is the most well-known and widely traded rosewood species, but it is also used as fuel wood, as well as for shade and shelter. It is the most important cultivated timber tree in Bihar, which produces the most shisham timber in India, after teak. The tree is planted along roadsides, canals, and as a shade tree in tea plantations in Bihar. It is also commonly planted as a street tree in southern Indian cities such as Bangalore.
Before being used in furniture production, North Indian rosewood is usually dried, a process known as seasoning. It is dried for about 6 months in open areas in the local area. It is dried commercially for 7-15 days in closed chambers with hot-air circulation, depending on weather
conditions. Depending on the use, the ideal moisture level is around 5-6 percent for thinner pieces and up to 11 percent for thicker ones. Any lower than this can result in the final products cracking unexpectedly.
North Indian rosewood is one of the best cabinet and veneer woods available. It's from this tree that the Rajasthani percussion instrument'mridanga' is made. It's used for plywood, agricultural tools, flooring, bentwood, and turning, in addition to musical instruments.
The sapwood is white to pale brownish white, and the heartwood is golden to dark brown. The heartwood is resistant to fungi and has a specific gravity of 0.7–0.8, but the sapwood is easily attacked by dry-wood termites and borers. The neoflavonoid dalbergichromene has been found in the stem bark and heartwood of D. sissoo.
Both the sapwood and the heartwood have a high calorific value, with 4,908 kcal/kg and 5,181 kcal/kg, respectively. It is grown on a 10- to 15-year rotation as a fuel wood. Although the tree has excellent coppicing ability, it has been reported to lose vigour after two or three rotations. For heating and cooking, the wood makes excellent charcoal.
Slender tree twigs (called datun) are traditionally chewed as a toothbrush and then split to clean the tongue. For centuries, this practise has been practised in Pakistan, Africa, and the Middle East. The wood has been used in India's Siddha medicine system to treat skin disorders and stomach problems. Many of India's 80 percent rural population still begins their day by brushing their teeth with a twig of Salvadora persica or Azadirachta indica. Shisham twigs are still collected and sold in markets in other parts of the world for this purpose in rural areas.
An ethanolic extract of D. sissoo fruits had molluscicidal effects on the eggs of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, a freshwater snail.
According to the Samargaa Stradhra, a Sanskrit treatise dealing with ilpastra, the juice of this plant is a potent ingredient for a mixture of wall plaster (Hindu science of art and construction).