Pennar River

The Pennar River is also known as the Uttar Pinakini. Pinaka refers to Shiva's 'bow'. Since the river flows in two streams, both North and South directions, it forms the shape of a bow. The Pennar River is one of Peninsular India's major rivers. It rises from the Nandi Hills in the Karnataka district of Chikkaballapur. The waters of the Pennar River flow into the Bay of Bengal.
•    The Pennar also goes by the name Uttara Pinakini.
•    It is one of the Indian peninsula's most important rivers.
•    The Pennar River begins in the Nandidurg range's Chenna Kasava peak in Karnataka's Chikkaballapura district.
•    It runs east and drains into the Bay of Bengal.
•    The Pennar River is 597 kilometres long.
•    The Pennar basin, located in peninsular India, flows through Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. It is 597 kilometres long, with a drainage basin covering 55,213 km2, 6,937 km2 in Karnataka and 48,276 km2 in Andhra Pradesh.
•    It covers an area of 55 thousand square kilometres throughout its course.
•    The Erramala range on the north, the Nallamala and Velikonda ranges of the Eastern Ghats on the east, the Nandidurg hills on the south, and the short ridge separates it from the Krishna Basin's Vedavati valley on the west.
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•     It is a fan-shaped basin.
•    The Seshachalam [renowned for Red Sanders] and Paliconda hills are the two hill ranges in the basin to the south of the river.
•    Agriculture covers the majority of the basin, accounting for 58.64 per cent of the total area.
•    The Somasila Dam is built in Somasila village across the Pennar River. It is near Atmakur city, in the Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh.
•    The Jayamangali River
•    The Kunderu River
•    The Sagileru River
•    The Chiravati River
•    The Papagni River
•    The Cheyyeru River
This is a unique river in the world where after originating from Nandi hills, it flows as two different streams, one in North and South directions. runs north and east through the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh to empty into the bay of Bengal in Andhra Pradesh. 

Gandikota Canyon:
Endearingly known as the ‘Grand Canyon of India’, Gandikota is a small and quaint village in the Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh. Flanked by River Pennar on the right side, the village is famous for the spectacular gorges formed by the river cutting through Erramala Hills. The narrow valleys with streams running between them and the steep rocky walls are reminiscent of the renowned Grand Canyon in Arizona. 

The Pennar River has gradually eroded the pink granite rock of Erramala Hills over time, resulting in the creation of the magnificent Gandikota Canyon in Andhra Pradesh. This natural wonder has played a significant role in the state's history, with various dynasties such as the Kakatiyas, Vijayanagaras, and Qutub Shahis vying for control over it. The canyon has a commanding presence and is the namesake for many local attractions.
One of the most prominent attractions is the Gandikota Fort, built in the 13th century using red sandstone. Its five-mile wall and fortified structure were home to some of the most powerful rulers in history. The fort complex also houses the Gandikota temple and Jama Masjid.
Gandikota Canyon
Another popular destination about an hour and a half away from the canyon is the Belum Caves in Kurnool district, which is the second-largest cave system in India. The caves were formed over millions of years as water slowly cut through the black limestone deposits in the area. The cave system is home to some of the most remarkable stalagmite and stalactite formations. On a nearby hillock, there is a 40 ft white Buddha statue, which is just behind the Belum Cave. The cave is also an important site for Buddhists and extends up to 150 ft deep.

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