Greek philosopher Plato was born in Athens during the Classical era (428/427 – 348/347 BCE). In Athens, Plato founded the Academy, a school for philosophy where he taught the ideas that later came to be known as Platonism. He established the Academy, the first known "university," as a Socratic student. He has significantly advanced political theory. His best work is The Republic, and his most well-known idea is The Theory of Forms.
Plato (348/347 Bce – 428/427 Bce)
• The greatest Greek philosopher, Plato (428/427–348/347 BCE), is most known for his Dialogues and for founding his Academy in Athens, which is frequently referred to as the first university in the Western world.
• Since Socrates was one of Plato's mentors, he frequently referred to him in his dialogues, which form the cornerstone of Western philosophy.
• His family was aristocratic and politically connected, and it appears Plato was groomed for a political career.
• In contrast, he had an affinity for the arts, and throughout his formative years, he may have written plays and/or poems.
• Even during Socrates' trial and execution, Plato gave up writing to devote himself to Socrates, producing the fundamental philosophical works of the ancient world that shaped Western civilization.
• The three major monotheistic religions of the world owe a great deal to Platonic thought, either directly or through the writings of his friend and student Aristotle (384-322 BCE). Aristotle's teachings were consistent with Plato's idea of the value of taking care of one's soul and living a good life, even though he would depart from some of Plato's specifics.
Plato And His Ideas
• Greek political thought is credited with having its roots in Socrates. One of Socrates' brightest pupils was Plato.
• The father of Western political thought is considered as Plato. It's because Socrates, his mentor, never left any writings, and Plato is the only author through whom we have access to his ideas.
• Plato's real name, was Aristocles and he was interested in philosophy and the search for the "truth".
• Plato produced a variety of works on the state, law, justice, politics, and philosophy after the tragic death of Socrates. The Republic is among his most well-known works.
• It covers a wide range of subjects, many of which are still important and are currently the subject of current research.
Theory Of Justice By Plato
• The Republic talks about Justice in the form of a debate.
• The Dialectical Method is what this is referred to as, and Plato acquired it from his teacher, Socrates. Socrates converses with Glaucon, Adeimantus, Cephalus, and Thrasymachus.
• The discussion came to the conclusion that enabling one person to persecute another would cause complete anarchy, making any state of affairs untenable.
• Men enter into a contract in order to protect themselves from suffering and to stop injustice from happening to them or to others.
• In order to codify basic human behavior and create a sense of justice, laws also developed in this way.
• According to Plato's theory of justice, a just society and just individuals are inseparably related.
• One must first decide who should be the state's ruler in order to completely comprehend Plato's concept of justice and its essence.
• He argues that statesmanship is a special position that can only be performed by capable people of moral integrity.
• The adage "Like Man, Like State," which suggests that a state's character is defined by the character of its citizens, was one that Plato espoused.
• It also implied that it is easier to comprehend the activities of human civilization and identify the individuals best fitted to reign in this society if one understands human nature.
Plato's Descriptions Of Human Behavior
• Three traits of human behavior are described by Plato:
o Appetite (or desire)
o Spirit or feeling
o Knowledge, intelligence
• All three emotions are present in every individual, although they are not all present to the same degree.
• Those who are restless and voracious, according to Plato, are suitable for commerce.
• Others are more likely to join fighters if they are driven by passion or spirit.
• Others, meantime, are content with meditation rather than success or material success. According to Plato, only wise men are capable of serving as leaders because they constantly seek knowledge and the truth.
• According to Plato, a just state has citizens for trade, military duty, and ruling, just as the perfect person possesses the ideal balance of desire, emotion, and knowledge.
• Desire-driven people will promote growth and production but not rule, armed armies will maintain security but not take power.
• Only those who are forces of knowledge and have no desire for wealth or power would rule.
Plato: Cardinal Virtue
• The characteristics that are proper for each social class are described by Plato's concept of fairness.
• Justice, the fourth virtue, would serve as the architect in creating an ideal society, while Temperance, Courage, and Wisdom would be fostered by the Trader, Soldier, and Philosopher classes, respectively.
• For the socioeconomic class of merchants, where want predominates, temperance is the proper virtue.
• Soldiers belong to a social class in which spirit or feeling predominates, and courage is the proper virtue for them.
• For the social class of philosophers, whose primary attribute is knowledge or intelligence, wisdom is the proper virtue.
• The virtue that matches the state is justice, which fosters harmony among the three social classes and is a necessary condition for human enjoyment.
• The first three virtues are connected to the three social classes, whereas the fourth virtue shows the harmony between the three groups. These four traits are also referred to as the four Cardinal Virtues of Justice, according to Plato.
Plato was Outstanding Greek philosopher. He is recognized as a true adherent of Socrates. The foundation of Plato's theory of the cardinal virtues is his conception of virtue. Justice, in Plato's view, is a necessary condition for leading a moral life. It enhances people's happiness. The Republic, his most well-known book, is the key text that best captures his understanding of justice. His morally-based theory of justice, which classifies social classes and explains virtues in terms of them, is recognized as being ageless.