Valmiki Tiger Reserve is the only tiger reserve in Bihar and forms the easternmost limit of India's Himalayan Terai forests. The forest contains a mix of bhabar and terai tracts and is located in the Gangetic Plains bio-geographic zone. Valmiki Tiger Reserve is located in Bihar's northwestern West Champaran district.
• In 1978, it was designated as a Wildlife Sanctuary. The Sanctuary's total area is approximately 545.15 km2.
• In 1990, Valmiki National Park was established. The park's total area is approximately 335.65 km2.
• The Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park is the country's 18th Tiger Reserve. Valmiki National Park and Valmiki Wild Sanctuary make up the Valmiki Tiger Reserve.
• The only way into the tiger reserve is through Valmiki Nagar, due to the dense forest cover in the area. The tiger reserve shares a border with Nepal's Chitwan National Park.
• A diverse range of flora and fauna can be found in the Valmiki National Park. Moisture-bearing Sal forests, dry-bearing Sal forests, moist mixed deciduous forests without Sal, cane, and tropical seasonal swamp forests with reed beds and wet grasslands make up the park.
• Due to adequate core areas and low poaching pressure, the US–WWF has designated the Valmiki protected areas in India and Chitwan National Park and Parsa Wildlife Reserve in Nepal as Level–1 Tiger Conservation Units (TCUs).
• The park is bisected by two rivers: the Gandak and the Masan River. Valmiki wildlife sanctuary is bordered on the west by the River Gandak. It enters India at Valmikinagar, where it is joined by two rivulets, Sonha and Pachnad, to form the holy Triveni confluence. In Nepal, the river is known as the Narayani.
• The Harha – Masan River system originates in the Valmiki Forests and flows south to form the Burhi Gandak River.
• All of these rivers, including the Rohua, Kotrahia, Manor, Bhapsa, Koshil, Singha, Dhonghi, Ganguli, and Dhoram, are full of youth and vitality.
• Mammals: tiger, rhinoceros, black bear, leopard, wild dog, wild buffalo, wild boar, hyena, leopard cat, wild cat, fishing cat, languor, monkey, Barking deer, Spotted deer, Hog deer, Blue bull, Flying squirrel, and so on.
• Reptiles – Python, Cobra, King cobra, Krait, Banded krait, Sand boa, Crocodiles, Gharial, monitor lizard etc.
• Indian bison and one-horned rhinoceros frequently migrate from Chitwan to Valmikinagar.
• There are a lot of crocodiles near Belahwa Village, which is close to the VTR.
The Valmiki world is rich in socio-cultural diversity. The dominant community in the landscape is the scheduled tribe ‘Tharu.' There are several theories about how this community in the Himalayan terai came to be colonised. Agriculture is their primary occupation, and rice is their staple food. They are non-vegetarians who enjoy chicken, pork, snails, and fish, as well as local liquor made from jaggary. Bhojpuri is the primary language. Their main festival is Rama Navami. They also have a sociocultural relationship with Nepal's Tharus. Their population is estimated to be around 2.5 lakh.
The scheduled tribes in the Valmiki landscape other than the Tharu are referred to as Dhangar, which means "retained labourer" in Oraon dialect. Oraon, Munda, Lohra, and Bhuiya are the four tribes that make up Dhangar. From the Chhotanagpur Hills, the ‘Dhangars' were brought to the area as agricultural labourers. Each Dhangar tribe speaks its own dialect and celebrates its own festivals. Their current population is estimated to be around 0.5 lakh.
'Baaji' is a term used to refer to non-tribal communities. They are outsiders who work in the villages' agriculture and small businesses.