Iucn Classification Of Conservation Species


IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is one of the most well-known objective assessment systems for classifying the status of plants, animals, and other organisms threatened with extinction. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) unveiled this assessment system in 1994. It contains explicit criteria and categories to classify the conservation status of individual species on the basis of their probability of extinction.
IUCN CLASSIFICATION OF CONSERVATION PRIORITY
 
EXTINCT (EX):  A taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. A taxon is presumed extinct when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), and throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon’s life cycle and life form.
 
EXTINCT IN THE WILD (EW):  A taxon is Extinct in the Wild when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalized population (or populations) well outside the past range. A taxon is presumed Extinct in the wild when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), and throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon’s life cycle and life form.
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CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR):
 A taxon is Critically Endangered when it is considered to be facing an extremely high rate of extinction in the wild and when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the following criteria –
  • Population size reduction of ≥ 90% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are clearly reversible, understood and ceased.
  • Probability of extinction in wild is at least 50% in 10 years
  • Population size is estimated to number fewer than 50 mature individuals.
 
ENDANGERED (EN): A taxon is Endangered when it is considered to be facing an extremely high rate of extinction in the wild and when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the following criteria –
  • Population size reduction of ≥ 70% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are clearly reversible, understood and ceased.
  • Probability of extinction in wild is at least 20% in 20 years
  • Population size is estimated to number fewer than 250 mature individuals
 
VULNERABLE (VU): A taxon is Vulnerable when it is considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild and when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the following criteria –
  • Population size reduction of ≥ 70% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are clearly reversible, understood and ceased.
  • Probability of extinction in wild is at least 20% in 20 years
  • Population size is estimated to number fewer than 250 mature individuals
 
NEAR THREATENED (NT): A taxon is Near Threatened when it has been evaluated against the criteria but does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable now, but is close to qualifying for or is likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future.
 
LEAST CONCERN (LC): A taxon is Least Concern when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or Near Threatened. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.
 
DATA DEFICIENT (DD): A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution are lacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat. Listing of taxa in this category indicates that more information is required and acknowledges the possibility that future research will show that threatened classification is appropriate. It is important to make positive use of whatever data are available. In many cases great care should be exercised in choosing between DD and a threatened status. If the range of a taxon is suspected to be relatively circumscribed, and a considerable period of time has elapsed since the last record of the taxon, threatened status may well be justified.
 

NOT EVALUATED (NE): A taxon is Not Evaluated when it is has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.

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