Ganga is a trans-boundary river of Asia, which flows through India and Bangladesh. It is the longest river in India.
Its source is the Gangotri glacier near Gaumukh in Uttaranchal's Uttarkashi district. The Bhagirathi is the name given to it in this region. The Bhagirathi meets the Alaknanda at Devprayag, where it becomes the Ganga.
Course of the Ganga river
- The Ganga is India's most important river, both in terms of its basin and its cultural significance. It rises near Gaumukh (3,900 m) in Uttarakhand's Uttarkashi district, from the Gangotri glacier.
- In narrow gorges, it cuts through the Central and Lesser Himalayas.
- The Bhagirathi meets the Alaknanda at Devprayag, and then becomes the Ganga. The source of the Alaknanda is the Satopanth glacier, which is located above Badrinath.
- The Alaknanda is formed by the confluence of the Dhauli and the Vishnu Gangas at Joshimath or Vishnu Prayag.
- At Karna Prayag, Alaknanda's other tributaries, such as the Pindar, join it, while Mandakini or Kali Ganga meets it at Rudra Prayag. At Haridwar, the Ganga enters the plains.
- It flows south from Haridwar, then south-east, east, and east before splitting into two distributaries, the Bhagirathi and the Hugli.
- The river is 2,525 kilometres long. Uttarakhand (110 km) and Uttar Pradesh (1,450 km), as well as Bihar (445 km) and West Bengal, share it (520 km).
- The Ganga basin is 8.6 lakh square kilometres in size. Finally, near Sagar Island, the river empties into the Bay of Bengal.
- The confluence of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda rivers is Devaprayag.
- Rudraprayag is the meeting point of the Mandakini and Alaknanda rivers.
- The confluence of the Nandakini and Alaknanda rivers is located in Nandaprayag.
- Karnaprayag is the confluence of the Pindar and Alaknanda rivers.
- The confluence of the Dhauliganga and Alaknanda rivers is Vishnuprayag.
Ganga Brahmaputra Delta
- The Ganga, along with the Brahmaputra, forms the world's largest delta between the Bhagirathi/Hugli and the Padma/Meghna, covering an area of 58,752 square kilometres before entering the Bay of Bengal.
- Delta's coastline is a heavily indented area.
- The delta is made up of a web of distributaries and islands, and it is surrounded by dense mangrove forests.
- A low-lying swamp that is flooded by marine water during high tide makes up a large portion of the delta.
Main Tributaries Of Ganga River
The Ramganga, the Gomati, the Ghaghara, the Gandak, the Kosi, and the Mahanada are important Ganga tributaries.
- The Yamuna, the Ganga's westernmost and longest tributary, rises from the Yamunotri glacier on the Banderpunch range's western slopes (6,316 km). At Prayag (Allahabad), it joins the Ganga. The Chambal, Sind, Betwa, and Ken join Ganga on its right bank, while on its left bank, the Hindan, Rind, Sengar, Varuna, and others join it. Much of its water is used to irrigate the western and eastern Yamuna canal, as well as the Agra canals.
- The Chambal River rises near Mhow in Madhya Pradesh's Malwa plateau and flows north through a gorge near Kota in Rajasthan, where the Gandhisagar dam was built. It flows down from Kota to Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, and Dholpur before joining the Yamuna. The Chambal ravines, a badlands topography, are well-known in the Chambal.
- The Kaligandak and Trishulganga streams make up the Gandak. It rises between Dhaulagiri and Mount Everest in the Nepal Himalayas and drains the country's central region. It enters the Ganga plain in Bihar's Champaran district and joins the Ganga near Patna at Sonpur.
- The Ghaghara originates in the Mapchachungo glaciers. It emerges from the mountain after collecting the waters of its tributaries – Tila, Seti, and Beri – and cuts a deep gorge at Shishapani. In the plains, the river Sarda (Kali or Kali Ganga) joins it before meeting the Ganga at Chhapra.
- The Kosi is a forerunner river that rises north of Mount Everest in Tibet, where its main stream, the Arun, originates. It is joined by the Son Kosi from the west and the Tamur Kosi from the east after crossing the Central Himalayas in Nepal. After joining the river Arun, it forms the Sapt Kosi.
- The Ramganga is a small river that rises near Gairsain in the Garhwal hills. After crossing the Shiwalik, it changes direction to the southwest and enters the Uttar Pradesh plains near Najibabad. Finally, near Kannauj, it joins the Ganga.
- The Damodar runs along the eastern edge of the Chotanagpur Plateau, passing through a rift valley before joining the Hugli. Its main tributary is the Barakar. The Damodar Valley Corporation, a multipurpose project, has now tamed the Damodar, once known as the "sorrow of Bengal."
- The Sarda or Saryu River rises in Nepal's Himalayas, where it is known as the Goriganga, in the Milan glacier. It is known as Kali or Chauk along the Indo-Nepal border, where it meets the Ghaghara.
- The Mahananda, a tributary of the Ganga that rises in the Darjeeling hills, is another important tributary of the Ganga. In West Bengal, it joins the Ganga as the last left bank tributary.
- The Son is a major Ganga River right bank tributary. It originates in the Amarkantak plateau and is a large Ganga tributary on the south bank. It reaches Arrah, west of Patna, to join the Ganga after forming a series of waterfalls at the plateau's edge.
Major River Valley Dam Projects With Ganga River System
The Tehri Dam is India's tallest dam. It is located in Tehri, Uttarakhand, and is built on the Bhagirathi River. The dam provides electricity, irrigation, and municipal water to thousands of people, making it a lifeline for many. The dam is located in an earthquake-prone region (Zone V). For many years, noted environmentalist Sunderlal Bahuguna led the Anti-Tehri Dam movement.
The Tanakpur Dam is located in Tanakpur, Uttarakhand, and is built on the river Kali.
The Chambal Project is a collaboration between the states of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. The project's main goals are to provide irrigation, generate electricity, and prevent and control soil erosion in the Chambal valley. The Chambal river has three dams: Chaurasigarh in Madhya Pradesh, Kota in Rajasthan, and Rawatbhata in Rajasthan.
The Rihand Project is Uttar Pradesh's most important multipurpose project. A dam is being built on the Rihand River near Pipri in Uttar Pradesh's Mirzapur district. The Rihand River is a tributary of the Son River and flows through Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh. Its old name was Renu or Renuka. The Son Canal, which supplies water to Bihar, is also being built. On the Uttar Pradesh-Chhattisgarh border, the Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar reservoir is being built.
The Gandak Project is a collaborative effort between the Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, as well as Nepal. It is built on the banks of the Gandak River.
The Ramganga Project is a hydroelectric and irrigation project on the Ramganga River, a Ganga tributary. It's situated in the Jim Corbett National Park area.
The Damodar Valley Project is India's first multipurpose river valley project. It was founded in 1948. Panchet Dam on the Damodar river; Tailaiya Dam, Maithon Dam, and Bal Pahari Dam on the Barakar river (a tributary of Damodar); Konar Dam on the river Konar (a tributary of Damodar); Bakora Dam on the Bokaro river are all important dams under the project (a tributary of Damodar). The Durgapur barrage on the Damodar river in Durgapur was also built for irrigation water storage.