Habitat in the ecological sense is the totality of the physical and chemical factors that constitute the general environment. A system consisting of biotic and abiotic components is known as an ecosystem.
  • All these components in the ecosystem are interrelated and interact with each other. Different types of ecosystems exist with varying ranges of environmental conditions where various plants and animal species have got adapted through evolution. This phenomenon is known as ecological adaptation.
  • Ecosystems are of two major types: terrestrial and aquatic. A terrestrial ecosystem can be further be classified into ‘biomes’. A biome is a plant and animal community that covers a large geographical area. The boundaries of different biomes on land are determined mainly by climate. Therefore, a biome can be defined as the total assemblage of plant and animal species (biotic factors) interacting within specific conditions.
  • These include rainfall, temperature, humidity and soil conditions. Some of the major biomes of the world are the forest, grassland, desert and tundra biomes (abiotic factors).
  • Aquatic ecosystems can be classed as marine and freshwater ecosystems. A marine ecosystem includes the oceans, coastal estuaries, and coral reefs. A freshwater ecosystem includes lakes, ponds, streams, marshes, and bogs.

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